Missing Wikipedias

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There are fewer than 300 Wikipedia editions and around 7000 languages. While most of 7000 languages have a small number of speakers, with many of these languages not likely to survive the next 50 years, many have tens of millions of speakers.

All data without explicit sources are based on Ethnologue.

Contents

How to help

  • Discuss how the Wikimedia movement could help to the speakers of the languages below to get possibility to create and use free knowledge.
  • Add your relevant ideas to the section ideas.
  • If you have some newer information, please add it with source.
  • If you have more information about some those languages, follow link "notes" and add that information. If it is first-hand information (i.e. "original research"), please note that; if you have sources, please add them. Information about language usage, technological development, Internet access etc. are very relevant.
  • Fix errors if you find them in the list.
  • Fix English Wikipedia redirects such as "[[ISO 639:xyz]]" to refer to the right language (not to a group of languages).
  • Add new data.

Ideas

Documentation

Languages with more than 1M of speakers

With Incubator project

Africa, North

number of speakers ISO 639-3 code ISO 639-1 code language name
(with link to Ethnologue article)
Wikimedia projects country region script classification language development further notes
3150000 tzm Tamazight, Central Atlas incubator-wikipedia Morocco Middle Atlas, High Atlas, east High Atlas Mountains. 1,200,000 in rural areas between Taza, Khemisset, Azilal, Errachidia; 100,000 outside language area. Also in Algeria, France. Arabic script. Latin script. Tifinagh (Berber) script. Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern, Atlas Literacy rate in L2: Men 25%, women 5%. Bible portions: 1919–1981. notes
3000000 shi Tachelhit incubator-wikinews, incubator-wikibooks, incubator-wiktionary, incubator-wikipedia Morocco Southwest, from coast south to Ifni, north to near Agadir, northeast to Marrakech outskirts, east to Draa, including Sous valley, and south near the border. Also in Algeria, France. Arabic script. Tifinagh (Berber) script. Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern, Atlas Bible portions: 1906–1925. notes
1700000 rif Tarifit incubator-wikipedia Morocco North. Dialects listed are near Al Hoceima. Also in Algeria, Belgium, France, Germany, Netherlands, Spain. Arabic script. Latin script. Tifinagh (Berber) script. Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern, Zenati, Riff Bible portions: 1887–2001. notes
1078200 aar aa Afar incubator-wikibooks, incubator-wiktionary, incubator-wikipedia Ethiopia Eastern lowlands, Afar region. May be in Somalia. Also in Djibouti, Eritrea. Ethiopic script, used in Ethiopia. Latin script. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Saho-Afar Literacy rate in L1: Below 1%. Literacy rate in L2: 3%. Radio programs. Dictionary. Grammar. NT: 1994. notes

Africa, Sub-Saharan

number of speakers ISO 639-3 code ISO 639-1 code language name
(with link to Ethnologue article)
Wikimedia projects country region script classification language development further notes
30000000 pcm Pidgin, Nigerian incubator-wikipedia Nigeria Southern states; northern states in Sabon Garis; coastal and urban areas. Creole, English based, Atlantic, Krio Poetry. Radio programs. TV. Dictionary. Grammar. Bible portions: 1957. notes
8300000 aka ak Akan incubator-wikibooks, incubator-wiktionary Ghana Asante are south central, Ashanti Province; Akuapem are southeast, north of Accra; Fante are south central, between Winneba, Takoradi, and Obuasi. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Akan Literacy rate in L1: 30%–60%. Literacy rate in L2: 5%–10%. Taught in primary and secondary schools. Dictionary. Grammar. Bible: 1871–1964. notes
4410000 luo Dholuo incubator-wikipedia Kenya Nyanza Province. Also in Tanzania. Latin script. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Southern, Luo-Acholi, Luo Literacy rate in L1: 10%–30%. Literacy rate in L2: 50%–75%. Taught in primary schools. Bible: 1953–1977. notes
4101000 nso Sotho, Northern incubator-wiktionary, incubator-wikipedia South Africa Transvaal, south and central. Also in Botswana. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Sotho-Tswana (S.30), Sotho, Northern Taught in primary and secondary schools. Radio programs. TV. Bible: 1904–2000. notes
3112000 ewe ee Éwé incubator-wiktionary Ghana Southeast corner. Also in Togo. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe Literacy rate in L1: 30%–60%. Literacy rate in L2: 75%–100%. Taught in primary and secondary schools. Newspapers. Radio programs. TV. Dictionary. Grammar. Bible: 1913–1931. notes
1849000 teo Teso incubator-wikipedia Uganda East, Katakwi (mainly), Soroti, Kaberamaido, Kumi, Pallisa, and Tororo districts. Lokathan, Madial area, Nangeya Mountains north end. Also in Kenya. Latin script. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Teso-Turkana, Teso Literacy campaign in progress. Taught in primary schools. Newspapers. Radio programs. Dictionary. Grammar. Bible: 1961. notes
1572800 nde nd Ndebele incubator-wikipedia Zimbabwe Matabeleland, Bulawayo area. Also in Botswana, Zambia. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Nguni (S.40) Literacy rate in L2: 55%. Dictionary. Bible: 1978. notes
1229000 dyu Jula incubator-wikipedia Burkina Faso Comoé, Kénédougou, Houet, and Leraba provinces. Also in Côte d’Ivoire, Mali. Arabic script. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Northeastern Manding, Bamana Radio programs. Films. Dictionary. Grammar. NT: 1993–1997. notes
1215000 ach Acholi incubator-wikipedia Uganda North, Kitgum District; Adjumani and Pader districts. Also in Sudan. Latin script. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Southern, Luo-Acholi, Alur-Acholi, Lango-Acholi Bible: 1986. notes
1070000 ndo ng Ndonga incubator-wikipedia, incubator-wikisource Namibia Ovamboland. Also in Angola. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, R, Ndonga (R.20) Literacy rate in L2: 75%. Dictionary. Grammar. Bible: 1954–1986. notes
1045000 mas Maasai incubator-wikisource Kenya Rift Valley Province, Kajiado and Narok districts. Also in Tanzania. Latin script. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Lotuxo-Maa, Ongamo-Maa Literacy rate in L1: Below 10%. Literacy rate in L2: 30%. Taught in primary schools. Bible: 1991. notes
1000000 bin Edo incubator-wikipedia Nigeria Bendel state, Ovia, Oredo, and Orhionmwon LGAs. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central, Edo-Esan-Ora Taught in primary and secondary schools. Radio programs. TV. Dictionary. Bible: 1996. notes

America, Central

America, North

America, South

Asia, Continental

Asia, Polynesia and Philippines

Asia, Siberia

Asia, South

Asia, South-East (including South China)

Asia, West

Australia and Pacific

Europe

Without Incubator project

Africa, North

number of speakers ISO 639-3 code ISO 639-1 code language name
(with link to Ethnologue article)
Wikimedia projects country region script classification language development further notes
3123190 mey Hassaniyya Mauritania Also in Algeria, Libya, Mali, Morocco, Niger, Senegal, Western Sahara. Latin script. Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Literacy rate in L1: 5%. Literacy rate in L2: 40% Arabic [arb]; 25% French. Radio programs. Dictionary. notes
1860000 ymm Maay Somalia South, Gedo region, Middle and Lower Shabeelle, Middle and Lower Jubba, Baay, and Bakool regions. Also in Ethiopia, Kenya, Sudan, United States. Latin script[1] Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Somali Bible portions: 2006.; 24%[1] and lowering because of war notes
1400000 shy Tachawit Algeria Aurès Mountains, south and southeast of Grand Kabylie. Arabic script, major usage. Latin script, minor but increasing usage. Tifinagh (Berber) script. Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern, Zenati, Shawiya Bible portions: 1950.; efforts to spread literacy in native language[2]; see also notes. notes
1230000 wal Wolaytta Ethiopia Wolaytta region, Lake Abaya area. Ethiopic script. Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, Central Literacy rate in L1: 1%–5%. Literacy rate in L2: 30%. NT: 1981. notes
1186000 bej Bedawiyet Sudan Northeast along Red Sea coast. Also in Egypt, Eritrea. Arabic script. Latin script. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, North Dictionary. Grammar. notes
1050000 tig Tigré Eritrea Also in Sudan. Ethiopic script. Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, North Bible: 1988. notes
1000000 stv Silt’e Ethiopia South of Addis Ababa 150km, Werabey Town. Ethiopic script. Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Transversal, Harari-East Gurage Literacy rate in L1: 15%. Literacy rate in L2: 17%. Taught in primary schools. Dictionary. Bible portions: 1981. notes

Africa, Sub-Saharan

number of speakers ISO 639-3 code ISO 639-1 code language name
(with link to Ethnologue article)
Wikimedia projects country region script classification language development further notes
7528900 plt Malagasy, Plateau Madagascar Central. Also in Comoros, Réunion, United States. Latin script. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy
A member of macrolanguage Malagasy [mlg] (Madagascar).
Fully developed. Bible: 1835–1938. notes
6300000 lua Luba-Kasai Democratic Republic of the Congo Widespread in Kasaï Occidental and Kasaï Oriental provinces. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Luba (L.30) Literacy rate in L2: Over 60% among Christians. Bible: 1927–1996. notes
5430000 suk Sukuma Tanzania Northwest, between Lake Victoria and Lake Rukwa, Shinyanga to Serengeti Plain (Kiya); also Mwanza (Gwe). Few in cities; 88% in the traditional area. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Sukuma-Nyamwezi (F.20) Bible: 1960. notes
5061700 mos Mòoré Burkina Faso Central Ouagadougou area; widespread. Also in Benin, Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Mali, Senegal, Togo. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest Radio programs. Dictionary. Grammar. Bible: 1983. notes
5000000 kng Koongo Democratic Republic of the Congo Bas-Congo Province cataract, Mbanza Manteke area; Fioti north of Boma, and scattered along Congo River from Brazzaville to its mouth. Also in Angola, Congo. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Kongo (H.10)
A member of macrolanguage Kongo [kon] (Democratic Republic of the Congo).
Radio programs. TV. Dictionary. Bible: 1905–1933. notes
4200000 ktu Kituba Democratic Republic of the Congo Bas-Congo and south Bandundu provinces. Latin script. Creole, Kongo based Bible: 1990. notes
4002880 umb Umbundu Angola West, Benguela District. Also in Namibia. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, R, South Mbundu (R.10) Dictionary. Grammar. Bible: 1963. notes
3960000 kam Kamba Kenya South central, Eastern Province, Machakos and Kitui districts; Coast Province, Kwale District. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Kikuyu-Kamba (E.20) Literacy rate in L1: More than 10% (BTL, 2007). Literacy rate in L2: 25%–60% (BTL, 2007). Taught in primary schools. Bible: 1956. notes
3691000 fuc Pulaar Senegal Fulbe Jeeri and Toucouleur primarily in Senegal River Valley and Mauritania; Fulacunda in Upper Casamance region, west of Kolda to Gambia River headwaters east, from Senegal south border to Gambian border north. Also in Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Mauritania. Arabic script, Ajami style. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fulani-Wolof, Fula, Western
A member of macrolanguage Fulah [ful] (Senegal).
Literacy rate in L1: 10%–30%. Literacy rate in L2: 15%–25%. Grammar. NT: 1997. notes
3602000 bem Bemba Zambia North, Copperbelt, and Luapula provinces. Also in Botswana, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Malawi. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Bemba (M.40) Newspapers. Radio programs. Dictionary. Bible: 1956–1983. notes
3240500 knc Kanuri, Central Nigeria Borno state, Kukawa, Kaga, Konduga, Maiduguri, Monguno, Ngala, Bama, Gwoza LGAs; Yobe state, Nguru, Geidam, Damaturu, Fika, Fune, and Gujba LGAs; Jigawa state, Hadejia LGA. Also in Cameroon, Chad, Eritrea, Niger, Sudan. Arabic script, Ajami style. Latin script. Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Western, Kanuri
A member of macrolanguage Kanuri [kau] (Nigeria).
Radio programs. TV. Dictionary. Grammar. NT: 1997. notes
3090000 vmw Makhuwa Mozambique Nampula, south of Meetto area. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makua (P.30) Bible: 1982–2000. notes
3000000 kmb Kimbundu Angola Northwest, Luanda Province. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Mbundu (H.20) Bible: 1980. notes
2929200 fuf Pular Guinea Northwest, Fouta Djallon area. Also in Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Senegal, Sierra Leone. Arabic script. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fulani-Wolof, Fula, West Central
A member of macrolanguage Fulah [ful] (Senegal).
Grammar. Bible portions: 1929–1986. notes
2438400 dje Zarma Niger Southwest. Also in Burkina Faso, Mali, Nigeria. Arabic script, Ajami style. Latin script. Nilo-Saharan, Songhai, Southern Taught in primary schools. Radio programs. TV. Dictionary. Bible: 1990. notes
2380000 ndc Ndau Mozambique South central region, Sofala and Manica Province, south of Beira. Also in Zimbabwe. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Shona (S.10) Bible: 1957. notes
2330000 nyn Nyankore Uganda Southwest, Bushenyi and Mbarara districts mainly; Kanungu, Ntungamo, and Rukungiri districts. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (J.10) Taught in primary schools. Newspapers. Radio programs. Dictionary. Grammar. Bible: 1964–1989. notes
2210000 tiv Tiv Nigeria Benue state, Makurdi, Gwer, Gboko Kwande, Vandeikya, and Katsina Ala LGAs; Plateau state, Lafia LGA; Taraba state, Bali, Takum, and Wukari LGAs. Also in Cameroon. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid Taught in primary schools. Dictionary. Grammar. Bible: 1964. notes
2130000 bci Baoulé Côte d’Ivoire Central Department, widespread in the south. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Northern Literacy rate in L1: 10%–30%. Literacy rate in L2: 25%–50%. Radio programs. Bible: 1998. notes
2120300 guz Ekegusii Kenya Nyanza Province, Kisii District, south of Kavirondo Gulf. Also in Tanzania. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Kuria (E.10) Literacy rate in L2: 15%–25%. Taught in primary schools. Bible: 1988. notes
2060000 xog Soga Uganda Central, between lakes Victoria and Kyoga: Kamuli, Bagiri and Mayuge districts; Kaliro District (Lulamogi Dialect); Jinja District (Lutenga Dialect); Iganga District, Busiki County (Lusiki Dialect). Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (J.10) Taught in primary schools. Radio programs. Dictionary. Grammar. NT: 2000. notes
2031800 emk Maninkakan, Eastern Guinea Widespread in upper region; central, Kankan region; forest region near Liberia. Also in Liberia, Sierra Leone. Latin script. N’Ko script. Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Southeastern Manding
A member of macrolanguage Mandingo [man] (Guinea).
Literacy materials taught in school. Dictionary. NT: 1932–1966. notes
2000000 btb Beti Cameroon Major part of Center and South provinces; East Province, Lom-and-Djerem and Upper Nyong divisions. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Yaunde-Fang (A.70) Bible: 1970. notes
1916000 yao Yao Malawi Southeast tip of Lake Malawi area, bordering Mozambique. Also in Mozambique, Tanzania, Zambia. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Yao (P.20) Literacy rate in L1: 5%. Literacy rate in L2: 60% Nyanja [nya], 30% Arabic [arb]. Dictionary. Grammar. Bible: 1920. notes
1830000 bjq Malagasy, Southern Betsimisaraka Madagascar East coast, Toamasina Province, Mahanoro District; Fianarantsoa Province, Nosy Varika, Mananjary, Manakara Atsimo districts. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy
A member of macrolanguage Malagasy [mlg] (Madagascar).
notes
1740000 mer Kimîîru Kenya Eastern Province, Meru District, northeast of Mt. Kenya. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Kikuyu-Kamba (E.20), Meru Literacy rate in L1: 5%–10%. Literacy rate in L2: 25%–50%. Taught in primary schools. Bible: 1964. notes
1710000 fuv Fulfulde, Nigerian Nigeria Kano-Katsina, Kano, Katsina, Zaria, Jos Plateau and southeast to Bauchi, Gombe is center; Bororro in Bornu state, Maiduguri is center; Sokoto in Sokoto state. Also in Cameroon, Chad. Arabic script, Ajami style. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fulani-Wolof, Fula, East Central
A member of macrolanguage Fulah [ful] (Senegal).
notes
1637000 lgg Lugbara Uganda Northwest, Arua and Yumbe districts. Also in Democratic Republic of the Congo. Latin script. Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Central Literacy campaign in progress. Taught in primary schools. Newspapers. Radio programs. Dictionary. Bible: 1966. notes
1580000 cgg Chiga Uganda Extreme southwest: Kanungu, Kabale, Kisoro, Ntungamo, and Rukungiri districts. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (J.10) Dictionary. Bible: 1989. notes
1510000 lub lu Luba-Katanga Democratic Republic of the Congo Katanga Province, Haut-Lomami District. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Luba (L.30) Bible: 1951. notes
1500000 ngl Lomwe Mozambique Northeast and central, most of Zambezia Province, south Nampula Province. Prestige center is Alto Molocue, Zambezia Province. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makua (P.30) NT: 1930–1983. notes
1499700 men Mende Sierra Leone South central. Expanding along the coast and south and east. Also in Liberia. Latin script. Mende script, little used except for correspondence and record keeping, especially accounting. Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Southwestern, Mende-Loma, Mende-Bandi, Mende-Loko Taught as an elective from primary to college levels. Dictionary. Grammar. Bible: 1959. notes
1490000 laj Lango Uganda Central, Apac and Lira districts, north of Lake Kyoga. Latin script. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Southern, Luo-Acholi, Alur-Acholi, Lango-Acholi Literacy campaign in progress. Taught in primary schools. Newspapers. Radio programs. Dictionary. Grammar. Bible: 1979. notes
1440000 gog Gogo Tanzania Dodoma region; Singida region, Manyoni District. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Gogo (G.10) Bible: 1962. notes
1435500 fon Fon Benin Zou Province, Atlantic Province, south Abomey-Calavi and Ouidah Subprefectures; Littoral Province, Cotonou. Interspersed with other groups south and in towns north. Also in Togo. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Fon Literacy rate in L1: 10%. 10% can read Fon, 7% can write it. Newspapers. Radio programs. TV. Grammar. NT: 1993. notes
1400000 anw Anaang Nigeria Akwa Ibom state, Ikot Ekpene, Essien Udim, Abak, Ukanafun, and Oruk-Anam LGAs. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Efik Taught in primary schools. TV. notes
1367000 alz Alur Democratic Republic of the Congo Orientale Province, Mahagi Territory, northwest to Djalasiga area. Also in Uganda. Latin script. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Southern, Luo-Acholi, Alur-Acholi, Alur Newspapers. Radio programs. Bible: 1936–1955. notes
1348000 mgh Makhuwa-Meetto Mozambique Cabo Delgado and Niassa provinces. Also in Tanzania. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makua (P.30) Dictionary. Grammar. Bible portions: 1927. notes
1346000 mnk Mandinka Senegal Southeast and south central. Also in Gambia, Guinea-Bissau. Arabic script. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-West
A member of macrolanguage Mandingo [man] (Guinea).
Literacy rate in L1: Below 1%. NT: 1989. notes
1340000 seh Sena Mozambique Northwest, Sofala, Manica, Tete, and Zambezia provinces, lower Zambezi River region. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Senga-Sena (N.40), Sena Dictionary. Grammar. NT: 1983. notes
1340000 kde Makonde Tanzania Mtwara region, primarily Mtwara Urban, Mtwara Rural, Tandahomba, and Newala districts. Also in Mozambique. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Yao (P.20) Grammar. Bible portions. notes
1300000 hay Haya Tanzania Kagera region, mainly Bukoba Urban and Bukoba Rural districts. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Haya-Jita (J.20) Bible: 2002. notes
1280000 xmw Malagasy, Tsimihety Madagascar North central. Latin script. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy
A member of macrolanguage Malagasy [mlg] (Madagascar).
Bible portions: 1924. notes
1250000 snk Soninke Mali Nioro, Nara, Banamba, Yélémané, Kayes principal towns. Possibly in Niger. Also in Côte d’Ivoire, Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mauritania, Senegal. Arabic script. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Soninke-Bobo, Soninke-Boso, Soninke Radio programs. TV. Dictionary. Grammar. Bible portions: 2001. notes
1230000 tem Themne Sierra Leone Northern Province, west of Sewa River to Little Scarcie. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Southern, Mel, Temne, Temne-Banta Literacy rate in L2: 6%. Taught as an elective from primary to college level. NT: 1868–1992. notes
1230000 fuh Fulfulde, Western Niger Niger West, Burkina Faso border east to Dogondoutchi area. Also in Benin, Burkina Faso. Arabic script, Ajami style. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fulani-Wolof, Fula, East Central
A member of macrolanguage Fulah [ful] (Senegal).
Literacy rate in L1: 5%–10%. Taught in primary schools. Radio programs. TV. Bible portions: 2003–2005. notes
1182000 abr Abron Ghana Southwest, northwest of Asante Twi [<a href="http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=aka">aka</a>]. Also in Côte d’Ivoire. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Akan Literacy rate in L1: Below 1%. Literacy rate in L2: 25%–50%. Literacy work started in several villages (2004). notes
1180000 tsc Tswa Mozambique South, most of Inhambane Province. Also in South Africa, Zimbabwe. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Tswa-Ronga (S.50) Dictionary. Grammar. Bible: 1910–1955. notes
1161900 srr Serer-Sine Senegal West central; Sine and Saloum River valleys. Also in Gambia. Arabic script. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Serer Literacy rate in L1: Below 1%. Bible: 2008. notes
1160000 mkw Kituba Congo Mainly between Brazzaville and Pointe-Noire. Latin script. Creole, Kongo based Literacy rate in L1: 5%–10%. Literacy rate in L2: 15%–25%. Bible portions: 1989. notes
1142000 zne Zande Democratic Republic of the Congo Far north of Orientale Province, Bas-Uele District. Also in Central African Republic, Sudan. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Zande, Zande-Nzakara Bible: 1978. notes
1127000 toi Tonga Zambia Southern and Western provinces. With Ila [<a href="http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ilb">ilb</a>] it predominates south. Also in Zimbabwe. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Lenje-Tonga (M.60), Tonga Taught in primary and secondary schools. Newspapers. Radio programs. TV. Bible: 1963. notes
1120000 myx Masaaba Uganda East, Mbale and Sirinko districts, adjacent to Mount Elgon. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Masaba-Luyia (J.30) Literacy rate in L1: Very low. Little or no literacy training in Masaaba, but an orthography guide has been published. Taught in primary schools. Radio programs. NT: 1977–1992. notes
1105000 nyy Nyakyusa-Ngonde Tanzania South Mbeya region, Lake Malawi north end; Iringa region, Makete District. Also in Malawi. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Nyakyusa (M.30) Dictionary. Bible: 1993–1996. notes
1060280 sus Susu Guinea Mainly southwest and west. Also in Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, Sierra Leone. Arabic script. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Susu-Yalunka Literacy materials taught in school. NT: 1884–1988. notes
1056400 yom Yombe Democratic Republic of the Congo Western Bas-Congo Province, Mayombe Forest. Also in Angola, Congo. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Kongo (H.10) NT: 2005. notes
1027900 fan Fang Equatorial Guinea Interior. Also in Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, São Tomé e Príncipe. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Yaunde-Fang (A.70) Bible: 1951. notes
1025000 mxc Manyika Zimbabwe Manicaland Province and adjacent areas, northeast of Umtali. Also in Mozambique. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Shona (S.10) NT: 1908. notes
1016650 nga Ngbaka Democratic Republic of the Congo Equateur Province, Gemena Territory area. 850 villages. Also in Central African Republic, Congo. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, East Possibly 150,000 read Ngbaka; 100,000 can write it. Taught in primary schools. Bible: 1995. notes
1009780 cjk Chokwe Democratic Republic of the Congo Near Angola border, southeast Bandundu, Kasaï Occidental, and Katanga provinces. Also in Angola, Namibia, Zambia. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Chokwe-Luchazi (K.20) Bible: 1970–1990. notes
1008500 ffm Fulfulde, Maasina Mali Central. Western in Segou and Macina areas; Eastern from north of Mopti to Boni east. Also in Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana. Arabic script, Ajami style. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fulani-Wolof, Fula, West Central
A member of macrolanguage Fulah [ful] (Senegal).
Literacy rate in L1: 5%. Literacy rate in L2: 5%. Taught in primary schools. Newspapers. Radio programs. Dictionary. Grammar. NT: 2005. notes
1000000 tdx Malagasy, Tandroy-Mahafaly Madagascar South, Toliara Province, Beloha, Tsihombe, Ambovombe, Bekily districts. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy
A member of macrolanguage Malagasy [mlg] (Madagascar).
notes
1000000 sop Songe Democratic Republic of the Congo Kasaï Oriental Province, between Sankuru and Lualaba rivers, mainly Kabinda zone and east into Katanga Province, Kongolo and Kabolo territories of. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Songye (L.20) NT: 1952–1978. notes
1000000 ijc Izon Nigeria Bayelsa state, Yenagoa, South Ijaw, Kolokuma-Opokuma, Ekeremor, and Sagbama LGAs; Delta state, Burutu, Warri, and Ughelli LGAs; Ondo state, Ilaje, Ese-Odo LGAs; Ekiti state, Ikole LGA. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Ijoid, Ijo, West Ijo Taught in primary schools. Radio programs. TV. Dictionary. Grammar. Bible portions: 1912–1924. notes
1000000 igb Ebira Nigeria Kwara state, Okene, Okehi, and Kogi LGAs; Nassarawa state, Nasarawa LGA; Edo state, Akoko-Edo LGA. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Nupoid, Ebira-Gade Literacy rate in L1: 5%–10%. Literacy rate in L2: 25%. High literacy motivation. Taught in primary schools. Radio programs. TV. Grammar. NT: 1981. notes
1000000 bmm Malagasy, Northern Betsimisaraka Madagascar East coast, Toamasina Province, Mananara Avaratra, Soanierana-Ivongo, Fenoarivo Antsinana, Vavatenina, Toamasina districts. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy
A member of macrolanguage Malagasy [mlg] (Madagascar).
notes

America, Central

America, North

America, South

Asia, Continental

Asia, Polynesia and Philippines

Asia, Siberia

Asia, South

Asia, South-East (including South China)

Asia, West

Australia and Pacific

Europe

Literacy needed

Africa, North

number of speakers ISO 639-3 code ISO 639-1 code language name
(with link to Ethnologue article)
Wikimedia projects country region script classification language development further notes
2900000 sid Sidamo Ethiopia South central, Sidamo zone, northeast of Lake Abaya and southeast of Lake Awasa. Ethiopic script. Latin script. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland Literacy rate in L1: 1%–5%. Literacy rate in L2: 20%. Dictionary. Grammar. NT: 1990. notes
2320000 sgw Sebat Bet Gurage Ethiopia West Gurage region. Chaha in Emdibir area; Gura in Gura Megenase and Wirir areas; Muher in Ch’eza area, mountains north of Chaha and Ezha; Gyeto south of Ark’it’ in K’abul and K’want’e; Ezha in Agenna. Ethiopic script. Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Outer, tt-Group Literacy rate in L1: Below 1%. Literacy rate in L2: 25%. NT: 1983. notes
1240000 gmo Gamo-Gofa-Dawro Ethiopia Omo region, Arba Minch area; mountains west to Lake Abaya. Ethiopic script. Latin script. Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, Central Literacy rate in L1: Below 1%. Literacy rate in L2: Gamo: 18.2%, Gofa: 18.5%, Dawro: 23.8%. Taught in primary schools. notes
1045000 kzh Kenuzi-Dongola Sudan North, Northern Province, mainly Dongola area. North boundary with Nobiin fia is Burgeg. Also in Egypt. Arabic script. Coptic script, Old Nubian. Latin script. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Nubian, Central, Dongolawi Bible portions: 1912. "Language use" from Ethnologue: The language is the central feature of Nubian identity. The ethnic group is larger in Egypt than Sudan, but many are now monolingual in Egyptian [arz] or Sa’idi Arabic [aec]. The shift to Arabic is expected to continue in cities. notes
1000000 eth Ethiopian Sign Language Ethiopia Deaf sign language Taught in primary and secondary schools. notes

Africa, Sub-Saharan

number of speakers ISO 639-3 code ISO 639-1 code language name
(with link to Ethnologue article)
Wikimedia projects country region script classification language development further notes

America, Central

America, North

America, South

Asia, Continental

Asia, Polynesia and Philippines

Asia, Siberia

Asia, South

Asia, South-East (including South China)

Asia, West

Australia and Pacific

Europe

Writing system needed

Africa, North

number of speakers ISO 639-3 code ISO 639-1 code language name
(with link to Ethnologue article)
Wikimedia projects country region script classification language development further notes

Africa, Sub-Saharan

number of speakers ISO 639-3 code ISO 639-1 code language name
(with link to Ethnologue article)
Wikimedia projects country region script classification language development further notes

America, Central

America, North

America, South

Asia, Continental

Asia, Polynesia and Philippines

Asia, Siberia

Asia, South

Asia, South-East (including South China)

Asia, West

Australia and Pacific

Europe

Not yet categorized

Africa, Sub-Saharan

number of speakers ISO 639-3 code ISO 639-1 code language name
(with link to Ethnologue article)
Wikimedia projects country region script classification language development further notes
30000000 pcm Pidgin, Nigerian incubator-wikipedia Nigeria Southern states; northern states in Sabon Garis; coastal and urban areas. Creole, English based, Atlantic, Krio Poetry. Radio programs. TV. Dictionary. Grammar. Bible portions: 1957. notes
8300000 aka ak Akan incubator-wikibooks, incubator-wiktionary Ghana Asante are south central, Ashanti Province; Akuapem are southeast, north of Accra; Fante are south central, between Winneba, Takoradi, and Obuasi. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Akan Literacy rate in L1: 30%–60%. Literacy rate in L2: 5%–10%. Taught in primary and secondary schools. Dictionary. Grammar. Bible: 1871–1964. notes
7528900 plt Malagasy, Plateau Madagascar Central. Also in Comoros, Réunion, United States. Latin script. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy
A member of macrolanguage Malagasy [mlg] (Madagascar).
Fully developed. Bible: 1835–1938. notes
6300000 lua Luba-Kasai Democratic Republic of the Congo Widespread in Kasaï Occidental and Kasaï Oriental provinces. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Luba (L.30) Literacy rate in L2: Over 60% among Christians. Bible: 1927–1996. notes
5430000 suk Sukuma Tanzania Northwest, between Lake Victoria and Lake Rukwa, Shinyanga to Serengeti Plain (Kiya); also Mwanza (Gwe). Few in cities; 88% in the traditional area. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Sukuma-Nyamwezi (F.20) Bible: 1960. notes
5061700 mos Mòoré Burkina Faso Central Ouagadougou area; widespread. Also in Benin, Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Mali, Senegal, Togo. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest Radio programs. Dictionary. Grammar. Bible: 1983. notes
5000000 kng Koongo Democratic Republic of the Congo Bas-Congo Province cataract, Mbanza Manteke area; Fioti north of Boma, and scattered along Congo River from Brazzaville to its mouth. Also in Angola, Congo. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Kongo (H.10)
A member of macrolanguage Kongo [kon] (Democratic Republic of the Congo).
Radio programs. TV. Dictionary. Bible: 1905–1933. notes
4410000 luo Dholuo incubator-wikipedia Kenya Nyanza Province. Also in Tanzania. Latin script. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Southern, Luo-Acholi, Luo Literacy rate in L1: 10%–30%. Literacy rate in L2: 50%–75%. Taught in primary schools. Bible: 1953–1977. notes
4200000 ktu Kituba Democratic Republic of the Congo Bas-Congo and south Bandundu provinces. Latin script. Creole, Kongo based Bible: 1990. notes
4101000 nso Sotho, Northern incubator-wiktionary, incubator-wikipedia South Africa Transvaal, south and central. Also in Botswana. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Sotho-Tswana (S.30), Sotho, Northern Taught in primary and secondary schools. Radio programs. TV. Bible: 1904–2000. notes
4002880 umb Umbundu Angola West, Benguela District. Also in Namibia. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, R, South Mbundu (R.10) Dictionary. Grammar. Bible: 1963. notes
3960000 kam Kamba Kenya South central, Eastern Province, Machakos and Kitui districts; Coast Province, Kwale District. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Kikuyu-Kamba (E.20) Literacy rate in L1: More than 10% (BTL, 2007). Literacy rate in L2: 25%–60% (BTL, 2007). Taught in primary schools. Bible: 1956. notes
3691000 fuc Pulaar Senegal Fulbe Jeeri and Toucouleur primarily in Senegal River Valley and Mauritania; Fulacunda in Upper Casamance region, west of Kolda to Gambia River headwaters east, from Senegal south border to Gambian border north. Also in Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Mauritania. Arabic script, Ajami style. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fulani-Wolof, Fula, Western
A member of macrolanguage Fulah [ful] (Senegal).
Literacy rate in L1: 10%–30%. Literacy rate in L2: 15%–25%. Grammar. NT: 1997. notes
3602000 bem Bemba Zambia North, Copperbelt, and Luapula provinces. Also in Botswana, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Malawi. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Bemba (M.40) Newspapers. Radio programs. Dictionary. Bible: 1956–1983. notes
3240500 knc Kanuri, Central Nigeria Borno state, Kukawa, Kaga, Konduga, Maiduguri, Monguno, Ngala, Bama, Gwoza LGAs; Yobe state, Nguru, Geidam, Damaturu, Fika, Fune, and Gujba LGAs; Jigawa state, Hadejia LGA. Also in Cameroon, Chad, Eritrea, Niger, Sudan. Arabic script, Ajami style. Latin script. Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Western, Kanuri
A member of macrolanguage Kanuri [kau] (Nigeria).
Radio programs. TV. Dictionary. Grammar. NT: 1997. notes
3112000 ewe ee Éwé incubator-wiktionary Ghana Southeast corner. Also in Togo. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe Literacy rate in L1: 30%–60%. Literacy rate in L2: 75%–100%. Taught in primary and secondary schools. Newspapers. Radio programs. TV. Dictionary. Grammar. Bible: 1913–1931. notes
3090000 vmw Makhuwa Mozambique Nampula, south of Meetto area. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makua (P.30) Bible: 1982–2000. notes
3000000 kmb Kimbundu Angola Northwest, Luanda Province. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Mbundu (H.20) Bible: 1980. notes
2929200 fuf Pular Guinea Northwest, Fouta Djallon area. Also in Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Senegal, Sierra Leone. Arabic script. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fulani-Wolof, Fula, West Central
A member of macrolanguage Fulah [ful] (Senegal).
Grammar. Bible portions: 1929–1986. notes
2438400 dje Zarma Niger Southwest. Also in Burkina Faso, Mali, Nigeria. Arabic script, Ajami style. Latin script. Nilo-Saharan, Songhai, Southern Taught in primary schools. Radio programs. TV. Dictionary. Bible: 1990. notes
2380000 ndc Ndau Mozambique South central region, Sofala and Manica Province, south of Beira. Also in Zimbabwe. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Shona (S.10) Bible: 1957. notes
2330000 nyn Nyankore Uganda Southwest, Bushenyi and Mbarara districts mainly; Kanungu, Ntungamo, and Rukungiri districts. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (J.10) Taught in primary schools. Newspapers. Radio programs. Dictionary. Grammar. Bible: 1964–1989. notes
2210000 tiv Tiv Nigeria Benue state, Makurdi, Gwer, Gboko Kwande, Vandeikya, and Katsina Ala LGAs; Plateau state, Lafia LGA; Taraba state, Bali, Takum, and Wukari LGAs. Also in Cameroon. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid Taught in primary schools. Dictionary. Grammar. Bible: 1964. notes
2130000 bci Baoulé Côte d’Ivoire Central Department, widespread in the south. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Northern Literacy rate in L1: 10%–30%. Literacy rate in L2: 25%–50%. Radio programs. Bible: 1998. notes
2120300 guz Ekegusii Kenya Nyanza Province, Kisii District, south of Kavirondo Gulf. Also in Tanzania. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Kuria (E.10) Literacy rate in L2: 15%–25%. Taught in primary schools. Bible: 1988. notes
2060000 xog Soga Uganda Central, between lakes Victoria and Kyoga: Kamuli, Bagiri and Mayuge districts; Kaliro District (Lulamogi Dialect); Jinja District (Lutenga Dialect); Iganga District, Busiki County (Lusiki Dialect). Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (J.10) Taught in primary schools. Radio programs. Dictionary. Grammar. NT: 2000. notes
2031800 emk Maninkakan, Eastern Guinea Widespread in upper region; central, Kankan region; forest region near Liberia. Also in Liberia, Sierra Leone. Latin script. N’Ko script. Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Southeastern Manding
A member of macrolanguage Mandingo [man] (Guinea).
Literacy materials taught in school. Dictionary. NT: 1932–1966. notes
2000000 btb Beti Cameroon Major part of Center and South provinces; East Province, Lom-and-Djerem and Upper Nyong divisions. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Yaunde-Fang (A.70) Bible: 1970. notes
1916000 yao Yao Malawi Southeast tip of Lake Malawi area, bordering Mozambique. Also in Mozambique, Tanzania, Zambia. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Yao (P.20) Literacy rate in L1: 5%. Literacy rate in L2: 60% Nyanja [nya], 30% Arabic [arb]. Dictionary. Grammar. Bible: 1920. notes
1849000 teo Teso incubator-wikipedia Uganda East, Katakwi (mainly), Soroti, Kaberamaido, Kumi, Pallisa, and Tororo districts. Lokathan, Madial area, Nangeya Mountains north end. Also in Kenya. Latin script. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Teso-Turkana, Teso Literacy campaign in progress. Taught in primary schools. Newspapers. Radio programs. Dictionary. Grammar. Bible: 1961. notes
1830000 bjq Malagasy, Southern Betsimisaraka Madagascar East coast, Toamasina Province, Mahanoro District; Fianarantsoa Province, Nosy Varika, Mananjary, Manakara Atsimo districts. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy
A member of macrolanguage Malagasy [mlg] (Madagascar).
notes
1740000 mer Kimîîru Kenya Eastern Province, Meru District, northeast of Mt. Kenya. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Kikuyu-Kamba (E.20), Meru Literacy rate in L1: 5%–10%. Literacy rate in L2: 25%–50%. Taught in primary schools. Bible: 1964. notes
1710000 fuv Fulfulde, Nigerian Nigeria Kano-Katsina, Kano, Katsina, Zaria, Jos Plateau and southeast to Bauchi, Gombe is center; Bororro in Bornu state, Maiduguri is center; Sokoto in Sokoto state. Also in Cameroon, Chad. Arabic script, Ajami style. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fulani-Wolof, Fula, East Central
A member of macrolanguage Fulah [ful] (Senegal).
notes
1637000 lgg Lugbara Uganda Northwest, Arua and Yumbe districts. Also in Democratic Republic of the Congo. Latin script. Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Central Literacy campaign in progress. Taught in primary schools. Newspapers. Radio programs. Dictionary. Bible: 1966. notes
1580000 cgg Chiga Uganda Extreme southwest: Kanungu, Kabale, Kisoro, Ntungamo, and Rukungiri districts. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (J.10) Dictionary. Bible: 1989. notes
1572800 nde nd Ndebele incubator-wikipedia Zimbabwe Matabeleland, Bulawayo area. Also in Botswana, Zambia. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Nguni (S.40) Literacy rate in L2: 55%. Dictionary. Bible: 1978. notes
1510000 lub lu Luba-Katanga Democratic Republic of the Congo Katanga Province, Haut-Lomami District. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Luba (L.30) Bible: 1951. notes
1500000 ngl Lomwe Mozambique Northeast and central, most of Zambezia Province, south Nampula Province. Prestige center is Alto Molocue, Zambezia Province. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makua (P.30) NT: 1930–1983. notes
1499700 men Mende Sierra Leone South central. Expanding along the coast and south and east. Also in Liberia. Latin script. Mende script, little used except for correspondence and record keeping, especially accounting. Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Southwestern, Mende-Loma, Mende-Bandi, Mende-Loko Taught as an elective from primary to college levels. Dictionary. Grammar. Bible: 1959. notes
1490000 laj Lango Uganda Central, Apac and Lira districts, north of Lake Kyoga. Latin script. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Southern, Luo-Acholi, Alur-Acholi, Lango-Acholi Literacy campaign in progress. Taught in primary schools. Newspapers. Radio programs. Dictionary. Grammar. Bible: 1979. notes
1440000 gog Gogo Tanzania Dodoma region; Singida region, Manyoni District. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Gogo (G.10) Bible: 1962. notes
1435500 fon Fon Benin Zou Province, Atlantic Province, south Abomey-Calavi and Ouidah Subprefectures; Littoral Province, Cotonou. Interspersed with other groups south and in towns north. Also in Togo. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Fon Literacy rate in L1: 10%. 10% can read Fon, 7% can write it. Newspapers. Radio programs. TV. Grammar. NT: 1993. notes
1400000 anw Anaang Nigeria Akwa Ibom state, Ikot Ekpene, Essien Udim, Abak, Ukanafun, and Oruk-Anam LGAs. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Efik Taught in primary schools. TV. notes
1367000 alz Alur Democratic Republic of the Congo Orientale Province, Mahagi Territory, northwest to Djalasiga area. Also in Uganda. Latin script. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Southern, Luo-Acholi, Alur-Acholi, Alur Newspapers. Radio programs. Bible: 1936–1955. notes
1348000 mgh Makhuwa-Meetto Mozambique Cabo Delgado and Niassa provinces. Also in Tanzania. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makua (P.30) Dictionary. Grammar. Bible portions: 1927. notes
1346000 mnk Mandinka Senegal Southeast and south central. Also in Gambia, Guinea-Bissau. Arabic script. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-West
A member of macrolanguage Mandingo [man] (Guinea).
Literacy rate in L1: Below 1%. NT: 1989. notes
1340000 seh Sena Mozambique Northwest, Sofala, Manica, Tete, and Zambezia provinces, lower Zambezi River region. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Senga-Sena (N.40), Sena Dictionary. Grammar. NT: 1983. notes
1340000 kde Makonde Tanzania Mtwara region, primarily Mtwara Urban, Mtwara Rural, Tandahomba, and Newala districts. Also in Mozambique. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Yao (P.20) Grammar. Bible portions. notes
1300000 hay Haya Tanzania Kagera region, mainly Bukoba Urban and Bukoba Rural districts. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Haya-Jita (J.20) Bible: 2002. notes
1280000 xmw Malagasy, Tsimihety Madagascar North central. Latin script. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy
A member of macrolanguage Malagasy [mlg] (Madagascar).
Bible portions: 1924. notes
1250000 snk Soninke Mali Nioro, Nara, Banamba, Yélémané, Kayes principal towns. Possibly in Niger. Also in Côte d’Ivoire, Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mauritania, Senegal. Arabic script. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Soninke-Bobo, Soninke-Boso, Soninke Radio programs. TV. Dictionary. Grammar. Bible portions: 2001. notes
1230000 tem Themne Sierra Leone Northern Province, west of Sewa River to Little Scarcie. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Southern, Mel, Temne, Temne-Banta Literacy rate in L2: 6%. Taught as an elective from primary to college level. NT: 1868–1992. notes
1230000 fuh Fulfulde, Western Niger Niger West, Burkina Faso border east to Dogondoutchi area. Also in Benin, Burkina Faso. Arabic script, Ajami style. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fulani-Wolof, Fula, East Central
A member of macrolanguage Fulah [ful] (Senegal).
Literacy rate in L1: 5%–10%. Taught in primary schools. Radio programs. TV. Bible portions: 2003–2005. notes
1229000 dyu Jula incubator-wikipedia Burkina Faso Comoé, Kénédougou, Houet, and Leraba provinces. Also in Côte d’Ivoire, Mali. Arabic script. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Northeastern Manding, Bamana Radio programs. Films. Dictionary. Grammar. NT: 1993–1997. notes
1215000 ach Acholi incubator-wikipedia Uganda North, Kitgum District; Adjumani and Pader districts. Also in Sudan. Latin script. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Southern, Luo-Acholi, Alur-Acholi, Lango-Acholi Bible: 1986. notes
1182000 abr Abron Ghana Southwest, northwest of Asante Twi [<a href="http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=aka">aka</a>]. Also in Côte d’Ivoire. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Akan Literacy rate in L1: Below 1%. Literacy rate in L2: 25%–50%. Literacy work started in several villages (2004). notes
1180000 tsc Tswa Mozambique South, most of Inhambane Province. Also in South Africa, Zimbabwe. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Tswa-Ronga (S.50) Dictionary. Grammar. Bible: 1910–1955. notes
1161900 srr Serer-Sine Senegal West central; Sine and Saloum River valleys. Also in Gambia. Arabic script. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Serer Literacy rate in L1: Below 1%. Bible: 2008. notes
1160000 mkw Kituba Congo Mainly between Brazzaville and Pointe-Noire. Latin script. Creole, Kongo based Literacy rate in L1: 5%–10%. Literacy rate in L2: 15%–25%. Bible portions: 1989. notes
1142000 zne Zande Democratic Republic of the Congo Far north of Orientale Province, Bas-Uele District. Also in Central African Republic, Sudan. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Zande, Zande-Nzakara Bible: 1978. notes
1127000 toi Tonga Zambia Southern and Western provinces. With Ila [<a href="http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ilb">ilb</a>] it predominates south. Also in Zimbabwe. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Lenje-Tonga (M.60), Tonga Taught in primary and secondary schools. Newspapers. Radio programs. TV. Bible: 1963. notes
1120000 myx Masaaba Uganda East, Mbale and Sirinko districts, adjacent to Mount Elgon. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Masaba-Luyia (J.30) Literacy rate in L1: Very low. Little or no literacy training in Masaaba, but an orthography guide has been published. Taught in primary schools. Radio programs. NT: 1977–1992. notes
1105000 nyy Nyakyusa-Ngonde Tanzania South Mbeya region, Lake Malawi north end; Iringa region, Makete District. Also in Malawi. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Nyakyusa (M.30) Dictionary. Bible: 1993–1996. notes
1070000 ndo ng Ndonga incubator-wikipedia, incubator-wikisource Namibia Ovamboland. Also in Angola. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, R, Ndonga (R.20) Literacy rate in L2: 75%. Dictionary. Grammar. Bible: 1954–1986. notes
1060280 sus Susu Guinea Mainly southwest and west. Also in Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, Sierra Leone. Arabic script. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Susu-Yalunka Literacy materials taught in school. NT: 1884–1988. notes
1056400 yom Yombe Democratic Republic of the Congo Western Bas-Congo Province, Mayombe Forest. Also in Angola, Congo. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Kongo (H.10) NT: 2005. notes
1045000 mas Maasai incubator-wikisource Kenya Rift Valley Province, Kajiado and Narok districts. Also in Tanzania. Latin script. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Lotuxo-Maa, Ongamo-Maa Literacy rate in L1: Below 10%. Literacy rate in L2: 30%. Taught in primary schools. Bible: 1991. notes
1027900 fan Fang Equatorial Guinea Interior. Also in Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, São Tomé e Príncipe. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Yaunde-Fang (A.70) Bible: 1951. notes
1025000 mxc Manyika Zimbabwe Manicaland Province and adjacent areas, northeast of Umtali. Also in Mozambique. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Shona (S.10) NT: 1908. notes
1016650 nga Ngbaka Democratic Republic of the Congo Equateur Province, Gemena Territory area. 850 villages. Also in Central African Republic, Congo. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, East Possibly 150,000 read Ngbaka; 100,000 can write it. Taught in primary schools. Bible: 1995. notes
1009780 cjk Chokwe Democratic Republic of the Congo Near Angola border, southeast Bandundu, Kasaï Occidental, and Katanga provinces. Also in Angola, Namibia, Zambia. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Chokwe-Luchazi (K.20) Bible: 1970–1990. notes
1008500 ffm Fulfulde, Maasina Mali Central. Western in Segou and Macina areas; Eastern from north of Mopti to Boni east. Also in Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana. Arabic script, Ajami style. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fulani-Wolof, Fula, West Central
A member of macrolanguage Fulah [ful] (Senegal).
Literacy rate in L1: 5%. Literacy rate in L2: 5%. Taught in primary schools. Newspapers. Radio programs. Dictionary. Grammar. NT: 2005. notes
1000000 tdx Malagasy, Tandroy-Mahafaly Madagascar South, Toliara Province, Beloha, Tsihombe, Ambovombe, Bekily districts. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy
A member of macrolanguage Malagasy [mlg] (Madagascar).
notes
1000000 sop Songe Democratic Republic of the Congo Kasaï Oriental Province, between Sankuru and Lualaba rivers, mainly Kabinda zone and east into Katanga Province, Kongolo and Kabolo territories of. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Songye (L.20) NT: 1952–1978. notes
1000000 ijc Izon Nigeria Bayelsa state, Yenagoa, South Ijaw, Kolokuma-Opokuma, Ekeremor, and Sagbama LGAs; Delta state, Burutu, Warri, and Ughelli LGAs; Ondo state, Ilaje, Ese-Odo LGAs; Ekiti state, Ikole LGA. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Ijoid, Ijo, West Ijo Taught in primary schools. Radio programs. TV. Dictionary. Grammar. Bible portions: 1912–1924. notes
1000000 igb Ebira Nigeria Kwara state, Okene, Okehi, and Kogi LGAs; Nassarawa state, Nasarawa LGA; Edo state, Akoko-Edo LGA. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Nupoid, Ebira-Gade Literacy rate in L1: 5%–10%. Literacy rate in L2: 25%. High literacy motivation. Taught in primary schools. Radio programs. TV. Grammar. NT: 1981. notes
1000000 bmm Malagasy, Northern Betsimisaraka Madagascar East coast, Toamasina Province, Mananara Avaratra, Soanierana-Ivongo, Fenoarivo Antsinana, Vavatenina, Toamasina districts. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy
A member of macrolanguage Malagasy [mlg] (Madagascar).
notes
1000000 bin Edo incubator-wikipedia Nigeria Bendel state, Ovia, Oredo, and Orhionmwon LGAs. Latin script. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central, Edo-Esan-Ora Taught in primary and secondary schools. Radio programs. TV. Dictionary. Bible: 1996. notes

America, Central

number of speakers ISO 639-3 code ISO 639-1 code language name
(with link to Ethnologue article)
Wikimedia projects country region script classification language development further notes
3202600 jam Jamaican Creole English incubator-wikipedia Jamaica Also in Canada, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Panama, United Kingdom, United States. Creole, English based, Atlantic, Western Literacy rate in L2: High in English. Dictionary. Grammar. notes
1900000 quc K’iche’, Central Guatemala Central highlands, Totonicapán, southern El Quiché, eastern Sololá, eastern Quezaltenango departments. Latin script. Mayan, Quichean-Mamean, Greater Quichean, Quichean, Quiche-Achi Literacy rate in L1: Below 1%. Literacy rate in L2: 25%–35%. 40,000 readers, 20,000 can write. Taught in primary schools. Radio programs. Videos. Dictionary. Grammar. Bible: 1995. notes

America, North

number of speakers ISO 639-3 code ISO 639-1 code language name
(with link to Ethnologue article)
Wikimedia projects country region script classification language development further notes

America, South

number of speakers ISO 639-3 code ISO 639-1 code language name
(with link to Ethnologue article)
Wikimedia projects country region script classification language development further notes
4850000 gug Guaraní, Paraguayan Paraguay Also in Argentina. Latin script. Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup I
A member of macrolanguage Guarani [grn] (Paraguay).
Taught in primary and secondary schools. Bible: 1997. notes
3000000 hrx Hunsrik Brazil Widespread with high concentrations in Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, and Paraná. Also in Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay. Indo-European, Germanic notes
2262900 ayr Aymara, Central Bolivia Whole Altiplano west of eastern Andes. Some migration to yungas and lowlands. Also in Argentina, Chile, Peru. Latin script. Aymaran
A member of macrolanguage Aymara [aym] (Bolivia).
Churches active in literacy. Government schools open to use Aymara literature. Radio programs. Dictionary. Grammar. Bible: 1987–1993. notes
1500000 quz Quechua, Cusco Peru Departments of Cusco, half of Puno, and northeast Arequipa. Latin script. Quechuan, Quechua II, C
A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que] (Peru).
Literacy rate in L1: 1%–5%. Literacy rate in L2: 62%. Taught in primary schools. Poetry. Radio programs. Dictionary. Grammar. Bible: 1988. notes
1000000 qug Quichua, Chimborazo Highland incubator-wikipedia Ecuador Central highlands, Chimborazo and Bolivar provinces. Quechuan, Quechua II, B
A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que] (Peru).
Bible: 1989–2006. notes

Asia, Continental

number of speakers ISO 639-3 code ISO 639-1 code language name
(with link to Ethnologue article)
Wikimedia projects country region script classification language development further notes

Asia, Polynesia and Philippines

number of speakers ISO 639-3 code ISO 639-1 code language name
(with link to Ethnologue article)
Wikimedia projects country region script classification language development further notes
13600900 mad Madura incubator-wikipedia Indonesia North coastal area of east Java, Sapudi Islands, Madura Island. Also in Singapore. Latin script. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, Madurese Literacy rate in L2: 40%. Literacy higher among Bangkalon. Grammar. Bible: 1994. notes
10296000 zlm Malay Malaysia Widespread in Peninsular Malaysia, parts of Sarawak. Also in Canada, Indonesia (Sumatra), Myanmar, Singapore, United Arab Emirates, United States. Arabic script. Latin script. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Malay
A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa] (Malaysia).
Radio programs. TV. Bible: 1733–1996. notes
5770000 hil Hiligaynon incubator-wikipedia Philippines Iloilo and Capiz provinces, Panay, Negros Occidental, Visayas. Also in United States. Latin script. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Peripheral Bible: 1912–2002. notes
5530000 min Minangkabau incubator-wikipedia Indonesia Widespread in the Indonesian Archipelago; west central Sumatra, Padang area. Nearly half live outside central Sumatra; South Sumatra, west coast Mukomuko area. Latin script. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Malay Taught in primary schools. Newspapers. Radio programs. NT: 1996. notes
3930000 mui Musi incubator-wikipedia Indonesia South Sumatra Province, Musi River upstream to Bukit Barisan mountains, downstream to eastern coastal swamplands. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Malay Taught in primary schools. Radio programs. TV. Dictionary. Grammar. notes
3502300 bjn Banjar Indonesia Around Banjarmasin south and east; East Kalimantan, coastal regions of Pulau Laut, Kutai and Pasir; Central Kalimantan as far as Sampit. Also in Malaysia (Sabah). Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Malay Dictionary. notes
3330000 ban Bali incubator-wikipedia Indonesia Island of Bali, north Nusa Penida, west Lombok Islands, and east Java, South Sulawesi. Balinese script. Javanese script, no longer in use. Latin script, used since early 20th century. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Bali-Sasak-Sumbawa Bible: 1990. notes
2700000 bew Betawi incubator-wikipedia Indonesia Jakarta, Java. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Malay, Trade Grammar. notes
2600000 meo Malay, Kedah Malaysia Kedah, Penang, Perlis, and (north) Perak states. Also in Thailand. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Malay
A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa] (Malaysia).
notes
2500000 bcl Bicolano, Central incubator-wiktionary Philippines Luzon, Camarines Norte and Sur, south Catanduanes, north Sorsogon, Albay. Naga City and Legaspi City are centers. Latin script. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Coastal, Naga
A member of macrolanguage Bikol [bik] (Philippines).
Bible: 1915. notes
2350000 pse Malay, Central incubator-wikipedia Indonesia South Sumatra, central Bukit Barisan highlands west to the Indian ocean along Bengkulu coast, east down Lematang and Ogan river valleys; south of Muaraenim, east and southeast of Lahat. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Malay Taught in primary schools. Dictionary. Grammar. NT: 1995. notes
2100000 sas Sasak Indonesia Lombok Island. Latin script. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Bali-Sasak-Sumbawa, Sasak-Sumbawa Bible portions: 1948. notes
2000000 bbc Batak Toba incubator-wikipedia Indonesia North Sumatra, Samosir Island and east, south, and west of Toba Lake. Batak script. Latin script. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest Sumatra-Barrier Islands, Batak, Southern Bible: 1894–1989. notes
1900000 bhk Bicolano, Albay Philippines Luzon, west Albay Province and Buhi, Camarines Sur. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Inland, Buhi-Daraga
A member of macrolanguage Bikol [bik] (Philippines).
notes
1880000 mfp Malay, Makassar Indonesia South Sulawesi, Makassar port area. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Malay, Trade notes
1600000 mak Makasar incubator-wikipedia Indonesia South Sulawesi, southwest corner of the peninsula, most of Pangkep, Maros, Gowa, Bantaeng, Jeneponto, and Takalar districts. Buginese script. Latin script. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Makassar Dictionary. Grammar. Bible: 1900–1999. notes
1200000 bts Batak Simalungun incubator-wikipedia Indonesia North, northeast of Lake Toba. Batak script. Latin script. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest Sumatra-Barrier Islands, Batak, Simalungan Bible: 1976. notes
1200000 btd Batak Dairi incubator-wikipedia Indonesia Northern, southwest of Lake Toba around Sidikalang. Batak script. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest Sumatra-Barrier Islands, Batak, Northern Bible: 1998. notes
1100000 btm Batak Mandailing incubator-wikipedia Indonesia North. Batak script. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest Sumatra-Barrier Islands, Batak, Southern notes
1062000 tsg Tausug incubator-wikipedia Philippines Jolo, Sulu Archipelago. Palawan Island, Basilan Island, Zamboanga City and environs. Also in Indonesia (Kalimantan), Malaysia (Sabah). Arabic script. Latin script. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, South, Butuan-Tausug Literacy rate in L1: 50%. Literacy rate in L2: 50%. Radio programs. Dictionary. NT: 1985–1998. notes
1000000 mdh Maguindanao Philippines Maguindanao, North Cotabato, South Cotabato, Sultan Kuderat, and Zamboanga del Sur provinces; Iranun also in Bukidnon, Mindanao. Latin script. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Danao, Magindanao Literacy rate in L1: 60%. Literacy rate in L2: 60%. Dictionary. Bible portions: 1946–1995. notes
1000000 jax Malay, Jambi Indonesia Southeast Sumatra, Jambi Province. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Malay
A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa] (Malaysia).
notes

Asia, South

number of speakers ISO 639-3 code ISO 639-1 code language name
(with link to Ethnologue article)
Wikimedia projects country region script classification language development further notes
38261000 awa Awadhi incubator-wikipedia India Uttar Pradesh, Kheri, Sitapur, Lucknow, Unnao, Rae-Bareli, Bahraich, Bara-Banki, Pratapgarh, Sultanpur, Gonda, Faizabad, Allahabad districts; Bihar; Madhya Pradesh; Delhi. Also in Nepal. Devanagari script. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, East Central zone Literacy rate in L1: 50%–75%. Education is in Hindi. Considerable epic literature. Awadhi is the standard for literature. Hindu holy book is in Awadhi: Tulsi Das author, Ramcharitmanas title. Radio programs. Bible: 2000–2005. notes
34700000 mai Maithili incubator-wikipedia India Bihar, Muzaffarpur on west, past Kosi east to west Purnia District, to Munger, Bhagalpur districts south, and Himalayan foothills north; Delhi, Calcutta, Mumbai. Many settled abroad. Cultural and linguistic centers are Madhubani and Darbhanga towns. Janakpur also important culturally and religiously. Also in Nepal. Devanagari script. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari Literacy rate in L1: 25%–50%. Literacy rate in L2: 25%–50%. If they can read Nepali or Hindi, they can read Maithili. The educated read Hindi, Nepali, or English books for pleasure. Some literacy work in India. Poetry. Magazines. Newspapers. Radio programs. Films. TV. Dictionary. Grammar. notes
17500000 hne Chhattisgarhi incubator-wikipedia India Chhattisgarh; Bihar; Orissa; possibly in Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, and Tripura. Devanagari script. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, East Central zone Poetry. Newspapers. Radio programs. TV. NT: 2005. notes
15000000 rkt Rangpuri Bangladesh Rajshahi Division north from Bogra, also known as the greater Dinajpur and Rangpur areas, now subdivided into Rangpur, Lalmonihat, Nilphamari, Gaibanda, Panchagar, Thakurgaon, and Dinajpur districts. Also in India. Bengali script. Kamtapura script, may be in use in Koch Bihar. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese Dictionary. Grammar. notes
13820000 skr Seraiki incubator-wikipedia Pakistan South Punjab and north Sind, Indus River valley, Jampur area. Derawali in Dera Ismail Khan, Tank, Bannu, and Dera Ghazi Khan. Jangli is in Sahiwal area. Also in India, United Kingdom. Arabic script. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Lahnda
A member of macrolanguage Lahnda [lah] (Pakistan).
Literacy rate in L1: Below 1%. Literacy rate in L2: 5%–15%. Radio programs. TV. Dictionary. Grammar. NT: 1819. notes
13000000 mag Magahi India Bihar, Gaya, Bhagalpur, eastern Patna districts; Jharkhand, northern Chotanagpur Division, Hazaribagh District; West Bengal, Maldah District. Devanagari script. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari Literacy rate in L1: 30%. Literacy rate in L2: 30% Hindi. Bhojpuri [bho] can use Magahi materials. Magazines. Newspapers. Radio programs. Grammar. NT: 1826. notes
13000000 ctg Chittagonian Bangladesh Chittagong region. Arabic script. Latin script. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese Lower literacy rate than most of the country. TV. notes
13000000 bgc Haryanvi India Haryana; Rajasthan; Punjab; Karnataka; Delhi; Himachal Pradesh; Uttar Pradesh. Devanagari script. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Unclassified Literacy rate in L2: 55% Hindi. Dictionary. Bible portions: 2001. notes
12800000 dcc Deccan India Central Maharashtra, Deccan Plateau; Karnataka, Belgaum, Bijapur districts; Madhya Pradesh, Raisen, Sehore districts; Gujarat. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone, Unclassified notes
10400000 mup Malvi India Madhya Pradesh, Ujjain, Indore, Rathlam, Mandsaur, Rajgarh, Dewas, Shajapur, Nimuch, Sehore, Dhar, Bhopal districts; Rajasthan, Jhalawar District. Sondwari dialect geographically isolated from the others. Devanagari script. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Unclassified
A member of macrolanguage Rajasthani [raj] (India).
Literacy rate in L2: 58% for rural Madhya Pradesh. Government project discontinued due to low response. Poetry. Radio programs. Dictionary. NT: 1826. notes
10300000 syl Sylheti Bangladesh Districts of Sylhet, Sunamganj, Habiganj, Moulvibazar. Also in Australia, Canada, India, Italy, Malaysia (Peninsular), Myanmar, Singapore, United Kingdom, United States. Bengali script. Latin script. Syloti Nagri script. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese Literacy rate in L2: 35%. Educated can read Bengali. Few women are educated. Bible portions: 1993. notes
9500000 bjj Kanauji India Uttar Pradesh, Kanpur, Farrukhabad, Etawah, Hardoi, Shahjahanpur, Pilibhit, Mainpuri, Auraiya districts. Devanagari script. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Unclassified Literacy rate in L2: 60% (2001 census). NT: 1821. notes
9000000 dhd Dhundari India Rajasthan, Jaipur, Dausa, Tonk districts. Possibly in Bundi, Kota, Kishangarh, Ajmer, Jhalawar, northern Karauli, Sawai Madhopur districts. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Marwari
A member of macrolanguage Marwari [mwr] (India).
Little interest in MT literacy. notes
7760000 bfy Bagheli India Northeast Madhya Pradesh, Rewa, Satna, Sidhi, Shahdol, Umaria, Anuppur, Jabalpur, Mandla, Chhindwara, Dindori, Panna districts; Uttar Pradesh, Allahabad, Mirzapur, Banda, Hamirpur districts; Chhattisgarh, Bilaspur and Koriya districts. Also in Nepal. Devanagari script. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, East Central zone Literacy rate in L2: 49% in Hindi. Had literature since 16th century. Radio programs. NT: 1821. notes
6970000 vah Varhadi-Nagpuri India Maharashtra, Amravati, Buldana, Akola districts; Madhya Pradesh, Chhindwara and Balaghat districts; Andhra Pradesh, Adilabad and Nizamabad districts. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone, Unclassified Radio programs. Bible portions: 1834. notes
6170900 sat Santali incubator-wikipedia India Bihar, Bhagalpur, Munger districts; Jharkhand, Manbhum, Hazaribagh districts, Orissa, Balasore District; West Bengal, Birbhum, Bankura districts; Assam; Mizoram; Tripura. Also in Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal. Bengali script. Devanagari script. Latin script, used in Bangladesh. Ol Chiki (Ol Cemet’, Ol, Santali) script. Oriya script. Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Santali Literacy rate in L1: 10%–30%. Literacy rate in L2: 25%–50%. Taught in primary schools. Magazines. Radio programs. Dictionary. Grammar. Bible: 1914–2005. notes
6000000 lmn Lambadi India Andhra Pradesh; Madhya Pradesh; Himachal Pradesh; Gujarat; Tamil Nadu; Maharashtra; Karnataka; Orissa; West Bengal. Devanagari script. Kannada script. Telugu script. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Unclassified Literacy rate in L2: 43% for Banjara of Andhra Pradesh. Many sources cite a much lower literacy rate for Banjara, 10%–20%. Radio programs. NT: 1999. notes
5622600 rwr Marwari India Rajasthan, Jodhpur, Jaisalmer, Barmer, Bikaner, Churu, Pali, Jalore districts; Gujarat; Madhya Pradesh; Punjab; Delhi; Haryana; Uttar Pradesh; thoughout India. Also in Nepal, Pakistan. Devanagari script. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Marwari
A member of macrolanguage Marwari [mwr] (India).
Literacy rate in L1: 5%–10%. Literacy rate in L2: 50%–75%. Radio programs. Grammar. NT: 1820–1821. notes
5000000 wtm Mewati India Rajasthan, Alwar, Bharatpur, Dholpur districts; Uttar Pradesh, Madhura District; Haryana, Gurgaon, Faridabad districts. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Unclassified Literacy rate in L2: 25%. notes
4730000 hoj Hadothi India Rajasthan, Kota, Jhalawar, Bundi, Baran districts; Madhya Pradesh, Gwalior District. Devanagari script. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Unclassified
A member of macrolanguage Rajasthani [raj] (India).
Literacy rate in L2: 75% in Kota District. NT: 1822. notes
4004490 knn Konkani India North and central coastal strip of Maharashtra; Karnataka; Dadra and Nagar Haveli; Kerala. Also in Canada. Devanagari script, official script. Kannada script, no longer in use. Latin script, no longer in use. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone, Konkani
A member of macrolanguage Konkani [kok] (India).
Newspapers. Radio programs. Films. Dictionary. Grammar. Bible: 1997. notes
3900000 wry Merwari India Rajasthan, Ajmer, Nagaur districts. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Marwari
A member of macrolanguage Marwari [mwr] (India).
notes
3800000 myi Mina India Madhya Pradesh, Gwalior, Shivpuri, Guna, Rajgarh districts, Vidisha District, Sironj Subdivision; Rajasthan, Jaipur, Alwar, Bharatpur, Sawai Madhopur, Tonk, Bundi, Ajmer districts. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified notes
3633900 gom Konkani, Goan incubator-wiktionary, incubator-wikipedia India South coast strip of Maharashtra, Ratnagari District; Goa; Karnataka; Kerala. Also in Kenya, United Arab Emirates. Kannada script. Latin script. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone, Konkani
A member of macrolanguage Konkani [kok] (India).
Bible: 2006. notes
3405000 bcc Balochi, Southern incubator-wikiversity, incubator-wikipedia Pakistan South Balochistan, south Sind, Karachi. Also in Iran, Oman, United Arab Emirates. Arabic script, Nastaliq style. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Balochi
A member of macrolanguage Baluchi [bal] (Pakistan).
Literacy rate in L1: Below 1%. Literacy rate in L2: 5%–15%. Radio programs. NT: 1999. notes
3000000 swv Shekhawati India Rajasthan, Sikar, Jhunjhunun, Churu districts. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Marwari
A member of macrolanguage Marwari [mwr] (India).
notes
3000000 gdx Godwari India Rajasthan, Jhalor, Sirohi, Pali districts. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Marwari notes
2920000 gbm Garhwali incubator-wikipedia India Uttarakhand; Tehri Garhwal, Pauri Garhwal, Uttarkashi, Chamoli, Dehra Dun, Rudraprayag districts; Himachal Pradesh; Tehri and Uttarkash, Jaunpuri and Ravai. Devanagari script. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Garhwali Literacy rate in L2: 72% for Uttarakhand. Older women lack literacy. Poetry. Magazines. Radio programs. NT: 1827–1994. notes
2680100 pbt Pashto, Southern Pakistan Balochistan, Quetta area. Also in Afghanistan, Iran, Tajikistan, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom. Arabic script. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pashto
A member of macrolanguage Pushto [pus] (Pakistan).
Grammar. notes
2680000 ins Indian Sign Language India Widespread. Also in Bangladesh, Pakistan. Deaf sign language Literacy rate in L2: Below 2%. Male literacy rate is higher than female as men more likely to attend school. TV. Videos. Dictionary. notes
2360000 kfy Kumaoni incubator-wikipedia India Uttarakhand, Almora, Nainital, Pithoragarh, Bageshwar, Champawat, Udhamsingh Nagar districts; Central Kumaoni in Almora and north Nainital; Northeastern Kumaoni in Pithoragarh; Southeastern Kumaoni in southeast Nainital; Western Kumaoni west of Almora and Nainital. Devanagari script. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Central Pahari Literacy rate in L2: 72% for Uttarakhand. Motivation not high. Poetry. Magazines. Radio programs. Dictionary. Grammar. NT: 2006. notes
2220000 brh Brahui incubator-wikipedia Pakistan South central, Quetta and Kalat region, east Baluchistan and Sind provinces. Also in Afghanistan, Iran, Turkmenistan. Arabic script, Nastaliq style. Dravidian, Northern Literacy rate in L1: Below 1%. Literacy rate in L2: Below 5%. NT: 1998. notes
2210000 haz Hazaragi incubator-wikipedia Afghanistan Central mountains between Kabul and Herat (Hazarajat); Kabul, between Maimana and Sari-Pul; north from immediately south of Ikoh i Baba mountain range almost to Mazar e Sharif; many refugees. Also in Iran, Pakistan, Tajikistan. Arabic script. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian Literacy rate in L1: Below 1%. Literacy rate in L2: Possibly 10%–20%. Radio programs. notes
2110000 dgo Dogri incubator-wikipedia India Jammu and Kashmir, Udhampur, Reasi, Kathua, Poonch districts. Arabic script, Nastaliq style, no longer in use. Devanagari script. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari
A member of macrolanguage Dogri [doi] (India).
Literacy rate in L2: 18%–19%. Young people are becoming literate in Dogri. Taught in primary and secondary schools. Radio programs. Films. NT: 1826. notes
2100000 bgq Bagri India Punjab, Firozepur District; Rajasthan, Hanumangarh, Sriganganagar districts; Haryana, Sirsa, Fatehabad districts. Also in Pakistan. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Unclassified
A member of macrolanguage Rajasthani [raj] (India).
Most Bagri live in rural areas and are illiterate. Grammar. notes
2094200 kru Kurux India Chhattisgarh, Raigarh, Surguja districts; Jharkhand Ranchi District; West Bengal, Jalpaigiri District; Bihar; Orissa, Sundargarh, Jharsuguda districts; Assam; Tripura. Also in Bangladesh, Bhutan. Devanagari script. Dravidian, Northern Literacy rate in L1: 62% Oraon in Chhattisgarh, 25% in Bihar, 17% of those in Kisan dialect. Radio programs. Dictionary. Grammar. Bible: 2000. notes
2000000 mtr Mewari India Rajasthan, Udaipur, Bhilwara, Chittoaurgarh districts; Gujarat; Haryana; Delhi; Madhya Pradesh; Uttar Pradesh. Devanagari script. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Marwari
A member of macrolanguage Marwari [mwr] (India).
Literacy rate in L2: 38%. Bible portions: 1815. notes
1970000 sck Sadri India Jharkhand, Ranchi, Palamau districts; West Bengal; Orissa; Assam; Madhya Pradesh; Andaman Islands; Nagaland. Bengali script. Devanagari script. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari Literacy rate in L2: 15%–25%. Magazines. Radio programs. Dictionary. NT: 1931–1986. notes
1950000 tcy Tulu incubator-wikipedia India Karnataka, South Kanara (Dakshina Kannada) and Udipi districts; Kerala, Kasargod District; scattered in other states in India. Kannada script. Tulu script, philosophical texts and religious verses are sometimes written in this script. Dravidian, Southern, Tulu Literacy rate in L2: 80%–83% in Dakshina Kannada [kan] for Udipi districts. Magazines. Radio programs. Films. Dictionary. Grammar. NT: 1847–2000. notes
1950000 gno Gondi, Northern India Madhya Pradesh, Betul, Chhindwara, Seoni, Mandla, Balaghat districts; Maharashtra state, Amravati, Wardha, Nagpur, Bhandara, Yavatmal districts. Devanagari script. Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Gondi
A member of macrolanguage Gondi [gon] (India).
Literacy rate in L1: 1%–5%. Literacy rate in L2: 25%–50%. Radio programs. Films. NT: 1996. notes
1930000 wbq Waddar India Andhra Pradesh; Karnataka; Maharashtra, Jalgaon District. Dravidian, South-Central, Telugu Some literate in Telugu or Marathi. notes
1880000 hno Hindko, Northern Pakistan Hazara Division, Mansehra and Abbotabad districts, Indus and Kaghan valleys and valleys of Indus tributaries, NWFP. Arabic script. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Lahnda
A member of macrolanguage Lahnda [lah] (Pakistan).
Literacy rate in L2: Below 20%. Poetry. Radio programs. TV. NT: 1991. notes
1803840 bgn Balochi, Western Pakistan Northwest Balochistan Province. Also in Afghanistan, Iran, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan. Arabic script, Nastaliq style, used in Afghanistan. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Balochi
A member of macrolanguage Baluchi [bal] (Pakistan).
Literacy rate in L1: 1%–5%. Literacy rate in L2: 5%–15%. Newspapers. Radio programs. Bible portions: 1984. notes
1800800 bgp Balochi, Eastern incubator-wikipedia Pakistan Northeast Balochistan Province, northwest Sind, southwest Punjab. Also in India. Arabic script, Nastaliq style. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Balochi
A member of macrolanguage Baluchi [bal] (Pakistan).
Literacy rate in L1: Below 1%. Literacy rate in L2: 5%–15%. Radio programs. Bible portions: 1815–1906. notes
1710000 wbr Wagdi India Rajasthan, south Udaipur, Dungarpur, Banswara districts; Gujarat, Sabarkantha, Panchmahals; Andhra Pradesh, Hyderabad. Devanagari script. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil
A member of macrolanguage Rajasthani [raj] (India).
Literacy rate in L1: Below 1%. Literacy rate in L2: 25%–50%. Radio programs. Dictionary. NT: 2000. notes
1700000 xnr Kangri India Himachal Pradesh, Kangra, Hamirpur, Una districts. Devanagari script. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari
A member of macrolanguage Dogri [doi] (India).
Literacy rate in L2: 70%. Poetry. Radio programs. notes
1580000 khn Khandesi India Maharashtra, Dhule District, Sakri tahsil, Nasik District, Satna tahsil, Nandurbar District, Nandurbar and Shahada tahsils; Gujarat. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Khandesi notes
1560280 unr Mundari India Jharkhand, south and west Ranchi District; Orissa; Madhya Pradesh; West Bengal; Himachal Pradesh; Assam; Tripura; Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Also in Bangladesh, Nepal. Bengali script. Devanagari script. Latin script. Oriya script. Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Mundari Literacy rate in L1: 10%–30%. Literacy rate in L2: 50%–75%. Radio programs. Dictionary. Grammar. Bible: 1910–2002. notes
1543300 brx Bodo incubator-wikipedia India Assam, mainly in Darrang, Nagaon, Kamrup districts; also in Goalpara, Sibsagar, Lakhimpur districts; West Bengal, Darjeeling, Jalpaiguri, Cooch-Behar districts; Manipur, Chandel (Tengnoupal) District; Meghalaya, West Garo Hills District, 7 villages in the Tikrikilla block, East Khasi Hills District. Also in Nepal. Bengali script. Devanagari script. Latin script. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Bodo-Garo, Bodo Literacy rate in L2: 61% Assam. Magazines. Radio programs. Dictionary. Grammar. Bible: 1981. notes
1500000 hoc Ho India Jharkhand, Singhbhum District, Kolhan, Seraikella, Dhalbhum areas; Orissa, Mayurbhanj, and Koenjhar districts; West Bengal. Devanagari script, used in Bihar. Oriya script, used in Orissa. Varang Kshiti script. Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Mundari Literacy rate in L1: 1%–5%. Literacy rate in L2: 25%–50%. Literacy program in progress. Dictionary. Grammar. NT: 1997. notes
1451980 uzs Uzbek, Southern Afghanistan North, Fariab Province, Maimana town. Possibly in Germany. Also in Pakistan, Turkey (Asia). Arabic script. Altaic, Turkic, Eastern
A member of macrolanguage Uzbek [uzb] (Uzbekistan).
Literacy rate in L1: 10%–30%. Literacy rate in L2: 15%–25% in Dari. Newspapers. Dictionary. Grammar. notes
1430000 noe Nimadi India Madhya Pradesh, Khandwa, Khargone, Barwani, and south Dhar districts; Uttar Pradesh; Maharashtra. Devanagari script. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Unclassified Literacy rate in L2: 40%. Radio programs. TV. notes
1391000 mni Meitei incubator-wikipedia India Manipur; Assam, Cachar, Karimganji; Nagaland; Tripura, West and North Tripura districts; Uttar Pradesh; West Bengal. Also in Bangladesh, Myanmar. Bengali script. Meetei Mayek script. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Meitei Literacy rate in L1: 73%. Literacy rate in L2: 69% for Manipur. Poetry. Radio programs. Videos. Dictionary. Grammar. Bible: 1984. notes
1300000 bhb Bhili incubator-wikipedia India Madhya Pradesh, Jhabua, Dhar, Ratlam, Indore, Khargone districts; Gujarat, Sabarkantha, Panchmahals, and Dahod districts. Devanagari script. Gujarati script. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil Literacy rate in L1: 1%–5%. Literacy rate in L2: 10%. Radio programs. TV. Videos. Grammar. NT: 1930. notes
1200000 vas Vasavi India Maharashtra, Nandurbar District, Tapti River area; Gujarat, Surat, Bharuch districts, north of Tapti River in southern areas of Akkalkuwa and Akrani (Dhadgaon) tahsils, a narrow belt of land between Satpudas and Tapti banks; Satpudas; south of Tapti in central and north Nandurbar and Nawapur tahsils. Devanagari script. Gujarati script. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Gujarati Literacy rate in L2: Low. Radio programs. NT: 2006. notes
1150000 bhi Bhilali India Madhya Pradesh, Khargone (Segaon), Barwani (Rajpur), southern Jhabua and southern Dhar districts; Maharashtra, Dhule District; some in Gujarat; Karnataka; Rajasthan. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil notes
1045000 pmu Panjabi, Mirpur India Kashmir, Mirpur area, near Pakistan border. Possibly in Pakistan. Also in United Kingdom. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Lahnda
A member of macrolanguage Lahnda [lah] (Pakistan).
notes
1000000 bfz Pahari, Mahasu India Himachal Pradesh, Shimla (Simla) and Solan districts. Devanagari script. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari Literacy rate in L2: 80% for Shimla District, 82% for Solan. Magazines. Newspapers. Radio programs. Dictionary. notes

Asia, South-East (including South China)

number of speakers ISO 639-3 code ISO 639-1 code language name
(with link to Ethnologue article)
Wikimedia projects country region script classification language development further notes
15000000 tts Thai, Northeastern incubator-wikipedia Thailand Northeast; 17 provinces. Kalerng in Sakon Nakhon and Nakhon Phanom. Thai script. Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, Lao-Phutai notes
6009400 nod Thai, Northern incubator-wikipedia Thailand Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Lamphun, Lampang, Maehongson, Hot, Nan, Phayao, Phrae, Uttaradit, Tak provinces. Also in Laos. Lanna (Tai Tham) script, most are not literate in this Old Northern script. Thai script. Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, East Central, Chiang Saeng Newspapers. NT: 1914. notes
4500000 sou Thai, Southern incubator-wikipedia Thailand Chumphon, Nakorn Srithammarat; 14 provinces total. Muslim Tai in provinces of Chumporn, Nakorn Srithammarat, Phattalung, Songkhla, Ranong, Phanga, Phuket, Krabi, Trang, Satun. Thai script. Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, Southern Literacy rate in L2: Read Central Thai. Bible portions: 2000. notes
3380000 mvf Mongolian, Peripheral incubator-wikipedia China Inner Mongolia, Liaoning, Jilin, and Heilongjiang provinces, Urumchi to Hailar. Also in Mongolia. Mongolian script. Phags-pa script, no longer in use. Altaic, Mongolic, Eastern, Oirat-Khalkha, Khalkha-Buriat, Mongolian Proper
A member of macrolanguage Mongolian [mon] (Mongolia).
Literacy rate in L2: 71%. Taught in primary and secondary schools. Magazines. Newspapers. Radio programs. TV. Grammar. Bible: 2003. notes
3295000 shn Shan incubator-wikipedia Myanmar Shan state, southeast Myanmar. Kokang Shan is in Kokang area, north Wa area, Shan state; Tai Mao is on Burma-Yunnan border, centered at Mu’ang Mao Long or Namkham, Myanmar. Also in China, Thailand. Myanmar (Burmese) script. Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, Northwest Bible: 1892–2002. notes
2649205 pcc Bouyei incubator-wikipedia China Guizhou-Yunnan plateau, mainly Buyi-Miao and Miao-Dong autonomous prefectures, Zhenning and Guanling counties, south and southwest Guizhou; Yunnan Province, Luoping County; Sichuan Province, Ningnan and Huidong counties. Also in France, United States, Viet Nam. Latin script. Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Northern Literacy rate in L1: 1%. Literacy rate in L2: 76%. Poetry. Newspapers. Dictionary. notes
2000000 iii ii Nuosu incubator-wikipedia China North Yunnan, south Sichuan, mainly in Greater and Lesser Liangshan mountains. Spoken in over 40 counties. Latin script. Yi script. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmic, Ngwi, Northern Literacy rate in L1: Moderate in central Liangshan. Low elsewhere. Literacy rate in L2: Moderate. Nearly all literate Nuosu are literate in Chinese; some are also literate in Nuosu. Taught in primary and secondary schools. Poetry. Magazines. Newspapers. Dictionary. NT: 2005. notes
1980000 zyb Zhuang, Yongbei China Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, N. Yongning, Hengxian, Bingyang, Wuming, Pingguo. Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Northern
A member of macrolanguage Zhuang [zha] (China).
Newspapers. Radio programs. Dictionary. Grammar. Bible portions: 1904. notes
1840000 zzj Zhuang, Zuojiang China Southwest Guangxi Province, Tiandeng, Daxin, Chongzuo, Ningming, Longzhou and Pingxiang Jingxi counties; Yunnan Province, Funing County, a few villages. Also in Viet Nam. Han (Hanzi, Kanji, Hanja) script. Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Central
A member of macrolanguage Zhuang [zha] (China).
notes
1810000 zyn Zhuang, Yongnan China South Guangxi, south Yongning, Longan, Fusui, Shangsi, Qinzhou and Fangcheng counties; some in Jingxi County; Yunnan, Funing County. Also in Viet Nam. Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Central
A member of macrolanguage Zhuang [zha] (China).
notes
1560000 zlj Zhuang, Liujiang China Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region: Liujiang, N. Laibin, Yishan, Liucheng, N. Xincheng. Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Northern
A member of macrolanguage Zhuang [zha] (China).
notes
1500000 zgb Zhuang, Guibei China Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region: Longsheng, Sanjiang, Yongfu, Rongan, Rongshui, Luocheng, Huanjiang, Hechi, Nandan, Tian’e, Donglan, Bama. Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Northern
A member of macrolanguage Zhuang [zha] (China).
notes
1500000 rhg Rohingya Myanmar Rakhine state. Also in Bangladesh, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, Thailand. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese notes
1490000 khg Tibetan, Khams China Northeast Tibet, Changdu (Qamdo) and Naqu (Nagqu) districts; west Sichuan, Ganzi (Garzê) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture; northwest Yunnan Province, Diqing (Dêqên) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture; southwest Qinghai Province, Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture. Tibetan script. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Northern notes
1480000 tyz Tày Viet Nam Central and northeast, near the China border, Cao Bàng, Lang Son, Hà Giang, Tuye Quang, Bác Thái, Quang Ninh, Hà Bac, Lam Dòng provinces; some settled south in Tung Nghia and Song Mao. Possibly also in Laos. Also in France, United States. Latin script. Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Central Literacy rate in L1: 1%–5%. Literacy rate in L2: 50%–75%. Radio programs. Dictionary. Bible portions: 1938–1963. notes
1480000 ksw Karen, S’gaw incubator-wikipedia Myanmar Ayeyawaddy (Irrawaddy) delta area, Taninthayi (Tenasserim) Division, the Pegu range between the Irrawaddy and Sittang rivers, the eastern hills Kayin (Karen) state. Also in Thailand. Latin script, no longer in use. Myanmar (Burmese) script, Sgaw extensions. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karen, Sgaw-Bghai, Sgaw Bible: 1853–1995. notes
1400000 kxm Khmer, Northern Thailand Northeast, mainly Surin, Sisaket, Buriram, Khorat provinces. Thai script. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Khmer Literacy rate in L1: Below 1%. 1,000 can read Northern Khmer, 100 can write it. Literacy rate in L2: 50%–75%. 1,000 can read Northern Khmer, 100 can write it. NT: 1996. notes
1400000 cqd Miao, Chuanqiandian Cluster China West Guizhou, west Guangxi, south Sichuan, Yunnan (especially southeast and northeast). Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian
A member of macrolanguage Hmong [hmn] (China).
Taught in primary schools. Radio programs. notes
1250000 hea Miao, Northern Qiandong China East and south Guizhou Province, Majiang, Danzhai, Leishan, Taijiang, Huangping, Shibing, Jianhe, Zhenyuan, Sansui, Fuquan, Pingba, Zhenning, Xingren, Anlong, Guanling, Zhenfeng and Ziyun counties, Kaili Qingzhen municipalities; northwest Guangxi Province, Longlin County. Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Qiandong
A member of macrolanguage Hmong [hmn] (China).
Taught in primary schools. Dictionary. NT: 1934. notes
1200000 zeh Zhuang, Eastern Hongshuihe China Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, south of eastern Hongshuihe River and south of Qianjiang River, includes south Shanglin, south Xincheng, south Xingbin, north Guigang, west Guiping and south Wuxuan. Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Northern
A member of macrolanguage Zhuang [zha] (China).
notes
1188000 prk Wa, Parauk Myanmar Northeast Shan state, upper Salween River area; East Shan state, Kengtung area. Also in China. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Waic, Wa Literacy rate in L2: 8%. Dictionary. Bible: 2006–2008. notes
1140000 mtq Muong Viet Nam Mostly north central mountains, Hoa Bình, Thanh Hóa, Vinh Phú, Yen Bai, Son La, Ninh Binh provinces. Latin script. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Muong Literacy rate in L1: 1%–5%. Literacy rate in L2: 50%–70%. Radio programs. Bible portions: 1963. notes
1080000 zch Zhuang, Central Hongshuihe China Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, either side of central stretch of HSH River, including Du’an, Dahua, Mashan, north Shanglin and possibly other border areas such as east Pingguo. Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Northern
A member of macrolanguage Zhuang [zha] (China).
notes
1050000 kjp Karen, Pwo Eastern Myanmar Kayin (Karen) state, Mon state, Taninthayi (Tensserim) Division. Also in Thailand. Leke script. Myanmar (Burmese) script. Thai script, used in Thailand. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karen, Pwo Bible portions: 2002. notes
1000000 zgn Zhuang, Guibian China Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region; Fengshan, Tianlin, Longlin, Xilin, Lingyun, Leyun; Yunnan, Funing, N. Guangnan. Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Northern
A member of macrolanguage Zhuang [zha] (China).
notes
1000000 mfa Malay, Pattani incubator-wikipedia Thailand North, Songkhla (Singgora) Province, Chana (Chenok) region, south through Pattani, Narathiwat, Yala, Saiburi, Tak Bai. Arabic script. Thai script. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Malay
A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa] (Malaysia).
NT: 1981. notes
1000000 kmc Dong, Southern China Area where west Hunan and north Guangxi provinces meet, southeast Guizhou (Yuping Autonomous County); Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. 20 contiguous counties. Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Kam-Sui Magazines. Dictionary. notes

Asia, West

number of speakers ISO 639-3 code ISO 639-1 code language name
(with link to Ethnologue article)
Wikimedia projects country region script classification language development further notes
9320240 kmr Kurdish, Northern incubator-wikipedia Turkey Hakkari, Siirt, Mardin, Agri, Diyarbakir, Bitlis, Bingol, Van, Adiyaman, and Mus, most; also Urfa, Kars, Tunceli, Malatya, Erzurum, Marash, Sivas, and other provinces; communities in central Turkey (Cankiri, Cihanbeyli, near Konya); many in large cities in the west, including Istanbul, Adana, Ankara, Izmir. Also in Afghanistan, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Netherlands, Norway, Russian Federation (Europe), Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Turkmenistan, United Kingdom, United States. Arabic script. Cyrillic script, used in Armenia. Latin script, developed in 1932. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish
A member of macrolanguage Kurdish [kur] (Iraq).
Literacy rate in L2: 28%. Much literature produced, especially in 20th century developed in 1932; originally based on Boti (Botani, Ciziri) variety and more recently influenced by that which is used around Diyarbekir and other areas. There are literary works from 16th and 17th centuries and onward. Newspapers. Radio programs. Dictionary. Grammar. NT: 1872–2000. notes
3952810 rmt Domari Iran Kurbat and Luli in west; Mehtar in Fars and Kohgiluyeh va Boyerahmad Province; Karachi in north. Also in Afghanistan, Egypt, India, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Libya, Palestinian West Bank and Gaza, Russian Federation (Europe), Sudan, Syria, Turkey (Europe), Uzbekistan. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Dom Grammar. notes
3712000 ckb Kurdish, Central Iraq South of Great Zab River, Suleimaniye, Arbil, Kirkuk, and Khanaqin and Mandali provinces. Also displaced. Diaspora communities in other areas, including western Europe, USA. Also in Iran. Arabic script. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish
A member of macrolanguage Kurdish [kur] (Iraq).
Literary standard is based on Sorani (from Suleimaniye) variety. NT: 1994. notes
3270000 mzn Mazanderani incubator-wikinews, incubator-wikibooks, incubator-wikiversity, incubator-wiktionary, incubator-wikiquote Iran North near Caspian Sea, south half of Mazanderan Province. Arabic script. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Caspian The educated can read Farsi [pes] well. Grammar. notes
3270000 glk Gilaki incubator-wikinews, incubator-wikibooks, incubator-wikiversity, incubator-wiktionary, incubator-wikiquote Iran Gilan region, coastal plain, south of Talish. Galeshi is a mountain dialect. Arabic script. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Caspian Radio programs. Dictionary. Grammar. notes
3000000 sdh Kurdish, Southern incubator-wikipedia Iran Western Iran, Kermanshah, Ilam provinces; Eastern Iraq border with those provinces including Xanaqin. Also in Iraq. Arabic script. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish
A member of macrolanguage Kurdish [kur] (Iraq).
notes
1500000 qxq Kashkay incubator-wikipedia Iran Southwest Iran, Fars and South Kohgiluyeh va Boyerahmad Province. Shiraz, Gachsaran, and Firuzabad are centers. Arabic script. Altaic, Turkic, Southern, Azerbaijani Many can read Farsi well. notes
1500000 lrc Luri, Northern incubator-wikipedia Iran Western Iran: central and south Lorestan, north Khuzestan, south Hamadan Province, south edge of Markazi Province, some regions of Ilam; Khorramabad, Borujerd, Andimeshk; possibly eastern Iraq. Arabic script. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Luri Poetry. Radio programs. TV. Dictionary. Grammar. notes
1000000 lki Laki Iran Western Iran, Ilam, Lorestan provinces, cities of Aleshtar, Kuhdesht, Nurabad-e Dolfan, Khorramabad. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish Poetry. Dictionary. notes
1000000 diq Dimli incubator-wiktionary Turkey East central, mainly Elazig, Bingol, and Diyarbakir provinces, upper courses of Euphrates, Kizilirmaq, and Murat rivers. Also in Germany. Latin script. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Zaza-Gorani
A member of macrolanguage Zaza [zza] (Turkey (Asia)).
Magazines. notes
1000000 bqi Bakhtiâri incubator-wikipedia Iran Southwest Iran: west Chahar-Mahal va Bakhtiari, east Khuzestan, east Lorestan, west Esfahan. Masjed-e Soleiman, Shahr-e Kord, Dorud. Arabic script. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Luri Poetry. Dictionary. Grammar. notes

Languages with Wikimedia projects in macrolanguages

Africa, North

number of speakers ISO 639-3 code ISO 639-1 code language name
(with link to Ethnologue article)
Wikimedia projects country region script classification language development further notes

Africa, Sub-Saharan

number of speakers ISO 639-3 code ISO 639-1 code language name
(with link to Ethnologue article)
Wikimedia projects country region script classification language development further notes

America, Central

America, North

America, South

Asia, Continental

Asia, Polynesia and Philippines

Asia, Siberia

Asia, South

Asia, South-East (including South China)

Asia, West

Australia and Pacific

Europe

Special cases

Languages which are in special category because of various reasons:

  • "Macrolanguage" is widely used.
  • Writing system gives de facto literacy in L1 if L2 is known.
  • Languages are spoken in well developed areas of the world by non-endangered population. It is assumed that population [want or] doesn't want Wikimedia projects because of their internal reasons.

Arabic languages

number of speakers ISO 639-3 code ISO 639-1 code language name
(with link to Ethnologue article)
Wikimedia projects country region script classification language development further notes
22397000 arq Arabic, Algerian Spoken incubator-wikipedia Algeria Also in Belgium, Egypt, France, Germany, Saint Pierre and Miquelon. Arabic script. Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic
A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara] (Saudi Arabia).
Bible portions: 1872–1964. notes
21048900 ary Arabic, Moroccan Spoken incubator-wikipedia Morocco North, south of Atlas Mountains, including Sahara port cities. Also in Belgium, Egypt, France, Germany, Gibraltar, Libya, Netherlands, United Kingdom, Western Sahara. Arabic script. Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic
A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara] (Saudi Arabia).
NT: 1932. notes
19000000 aec Arabic, Sa’idi Spoken Egypt Cairo south edge to Sudan border. Middle Egypt in Bani Sweef, Fayyuum, and Gizeh; Upper Egypt from Asyuut to Edfu and south. Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic
A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara] (Saudi Arabia).
notes
16833000 apd Arabic, Sudanese Spoken Sudan Primarily north. Also in Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Libya, Saudi Arabia. Arabic script. Latin script. Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic
A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara] (Saudi Arabia).
NT: 1978. notes
15100000 acm Arabic, Mesopotamian Spoken Iraq Tigris and Euphrates area. Also in Iran, Jordan, Syria, Turkey (Asia). Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic
A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara] (Saudi Arabia).
Radio programs. TV. notes
14426540 apc Arabic, North Levantine Spoken incubator-wikipedia Syria Also in Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Belize, Cyprus, Dominican Republic, Egypt, French Guiana, Israel, Jamaica, Lebanon, Mali, Puerto Rico, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkey (Asia). Arabic script. Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic
A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara] (Saudi Arabia).
Radio programs. TV. notes
9977000 ars Arabic, Najdi Spoken Saudi Arabia Also in Canada, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Syria, United States. Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic
A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara] (Saudi Arabia).
notes
9406900 aeb Arabic, Tunisian Spoken Tunisia Also in Belgium, France, Germany, Libya. Arabic script. Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic
A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara] (Saudi Arabia).
Bible portions: 1903–1928. notes
7600000 ayn Arabic, Sanaani Spoken Yemen Extends as far south as Dhamar. Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic
A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara] (Saudi Arabia).
Literacy rate in L2: 10%. notes
7078500 acq Arabic, Ta’izzi-Adeni Spoken Yemen All provinces except the 2 east and the northeast ones. Probably a few in United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia. Also in Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Kenya, Libya, Somalia, United Kingdom. Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic
A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara] (Saudi Arabia).
Literacy rate in L2: 10%. notes
6300000 ayp Arabic, North Mesopotamian Spoken Iraq Tigris, part of the Euphrates valleys north of Baghdad. Also in Jordan, Syria, Turkey (Asia). Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic
A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara] (Saudi Arabia).
notes
6200000 ajp Arabic, South Levantine Spoken incubator-wikipedia Jordan Also in Argentina, Egypt, Israel, Kuwait, Libya, Palestinian West Bank and Gaza, Puerto Rico, Syria. Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic
A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara] (Saudi Arabia).
Radio programs. TV. Bible portions: 1940–1973. notes
6023900 acw Arabic, Hijazi Spoken Saudi Arabia Red Sea coast and adjacent highlands. Also in Eritrea. Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic
A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara] (Saudi Arabia).
notes
4321000 ayl Arabic, Libyan Spoken incubator-wikipedia Libya Especially north half. Also in Egypt, Niger. Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic
A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara] (Saudi Arabia).
notes
3599000 afb Arabic, Gulf Spoken Iraq Zubair area, Fau Peninsula. Also in Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Yemen. Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic
A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara] (Saudi Arabia).
notes
1690000 avl Arabic, Eastern Egyptian Bedawi Spoken Egypt Bedouin regions in Sinai; parts of Red Sea coast, almost to south border; entire east bank. Also in Israel, Jordan, Palestinian West Bank and Gaza, Syria. Arabic script. Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic
A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara] (Saudi Arabia).
TV. notes
1139000 shu Arabic, Chadian Spoken Chad Salamat, Ouaddaï, Wadi Fira regions, Batha region center and west, much of Chari-Baguirmi; Mayo-Kebbi; north Tandjilé; Guéra. Also in Cameroon, Central African Republic, Niger, Nigeria. Arabic script. Latin script. Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic
A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara] (Saudi Arabia).
Primary school program by gtz-Education. ELN and PARSET. Dictionary. Grammar. NT: 1967–1991. notes

Asian languages, Continental

number of speakers ISO 639-3 code ISO 639-1 code language name
(with link to Ethnologue article)
Wikimedia projects country region script classification language development further notes
2341240 khk Mongolian, Halh Mongolia Former Buryat Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of the Russian Federation and Issyk-Kul Oblast of Kyrgyzstan. Also in Kyrgyzstan, Russian Federation (Asia), Taiwan, United States. Cyrillic script. Mongolian script, used prior to 1941 with a resurgence since the 1990s. Phags-pa script, no longer in use. Altaic, Mongolic, Eastern, Oirat-Khalkha, Khalkha-Buriat, Mongolian Proper
A member of macrolanguage Mongolian [mon] (Mongolia).
Ethnic Zahchin, Mingat, Bayad, Oold are literate in Halh. NT: 1990. notes

Asian languages, West

number of speakers ISO 639-3 code ISO 639-1 code language name
(with link to Ethnologue article)
Wikimedia projects country region script classification language development further notes
1762320 ydd Yiddish, Eastern Israel Southeastern dialect in Ukraine and Romania, Mideastern dialect in Poland and Hungary, Northeastern dialect in Lithuania and Belarus. Also in Argentina, Australia, Belarus, Belgium, Canada, Costa Rica, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Panama, Poland, Puerto Rico, Romania, Russian Federation (Europe), South Africa, Sweden, Ukraine, United States, Uruguay. Hebrew script. Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, Yiddish
A member of macrolanguage Yiddish [yid] (Israel).
Magazines. Radio programs. Bible: 1821–1936. notes

Chinese languages

number of speakers ISO 639-3 code ISO 639-1 code language name
(with link to Ethnologue article)
Wikimedia projects country region script classification language development further notes
45000000 cjy Chinese, Jinyu China Mainly in Shanxi Province; some in Shaanxi and Henan provinces. Han script, Simplified variant. Han script, Traditional variant. Sino-Tibetan, Chinese
A member of macrolanguage Chinese [zho] (China).
Literacy rate in L2: 91%. notes
36024400 hsn Chinese, Xiang incubator-wikipedia China Hunan Province, Sichuan Province, over 20 counties; parts of Guangxi and Guangdong provinces. Also in United States. Han script, Simplified variant. Han script, Traditional variant. Sino-Tibetan, Chinese
A member of macrolanguage Chinese [zho] (China).
Literacy rate in L2: 91%. notes
10304000 mnp Chinese, Min Bei incubator-wikipedia China North Fujian Province, 7 counties around Jian’ou. Also in Singapore. Sino-Tibetan, Chinese
A member of macrolanguage Chinese [zho] (China).
Literacy rate in L2: 91%. NT: 1934. notes
4600000 czh Chinese, Huizhou China South Anhui Province, Huizhou region and Jixi, She (Xi), Ningguo, Jingde, Tunxi, Xiuning, Yi, Qimen and Dongzhi counties; northern Zhejiang Province, Chun’an County, Jiande municipality; northeast Jiangxi Province, Wuyuan, Dexing and Fuliang counties. Han script, Simplified variant. Han script, Traditional variant. Sino-Tibetan, Chinese
A member of macrolanguage Chinese [zho] (China).
Literacy rate in L2: 91%. notes
3100000 czo Chinese, Min Zhong China Central Fujian Province, Sha County, Yong’an and Sanming municipalities. Sino-Tibetan, Chinese
A member of macrolanguage Chinese [zho] (China).
Highly literate in Chinese, and they use that literature. notes
2558800 cpx Chinese, Pu-Xian incubator-wikipedia China East central Fujian Province, Putian and Xianyou counties. Also in Malaysia (Peninsular), Singapore. Sino-Tibetan, Chinese
A member of macrolanguage Chinese [zho] (China).
Literacy rate in L2: 91%. Highly literate in Chinese, and they use that literature. Bible: 1912. notes

European languages

number of speakers ISO 639-3 code ISO 639-1 code language name
(with link to Ethnologue article)
Wikimedia projects country region script classification language development further notes
4910000 vmf Mainfränkisch incubator-wikipedia Germany Mostly River Main area, including Mainz, west of Frankfurt. Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, West Middle German, Moselle Franconian Bible portions: 1992. notes
4156090 aln Albanian, Gheg incubator-wikipedia Serbia Kosovo. Also in Albania, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Macedonia, Montenegro, Romania, Slovenia, United States. Latin script. Indo-European, Albanian, Gheg
A member of macrolanguage Albanian [sqi] (Albania).
Newspapers. NT: 1869–1990. notes
2000000 sxu Saxon, Upper Germany East, southeast, Sachsen with Dresden, Leipzig, Chemnitz, Halle in Sachsen-Anhalt. Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, East Middle German Bible portions: 1996. notes

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 http://www.cal.org/co/bantu/sblang.html
  2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shawia_language